A problem within the community

1- Within your community, there has been a large increase in teenage smoking, and community leaders are developing a plan to decrease the incidence of smoking. To help them, you will:

A) Develop a research question to address the problem.
B) Determine what kind of study should be undertaken.
C) Design a study to decrease the incidence of smoking in teenagers.

2- Recently, immunizations have become a major topic in health care at the governmental level. Based on community-level data, you have identified the need to increase immunization rates in the refugee and immigrant population in your community. Whom might you enlist as partners in planning and implementing programs to achieve desired health outcomes at the community level? Why did you select these partners?

Sample Answer


Officially presented by the thirteenth century rationalist Thomas Aquinas, Natural Moral Law (hereon NML) suggests that integrity can be accomplished by finding and following up on what is regular. Everything has a reason/telos, and by satisfying this reason, it is imagined that integrity can be come to. Aquinas constructs his contention upon the synderesis rule: "Great is to be done and sought after, insidious is to be evaded". While the hypothesis perpetually has qualities, there are additionally issues and logical inconsistencies which must be surveyed on the off chance that we are to appropriately assess the legitimacy of the hypothesis.

While Aquinas is authorize with having distributed NML, he was significantly affected by his ancestors, especially Aristotle. The job of these rationalists could be contended just like a quality of the hypothesis. Living in the fourth Century BCE, Aristotle said that everything on the planet had a "telos", also called a Final Cause. It was when something accomplished its motivation that Aristotle accepted there to be goodness, thus by seeing something's motivation, individuals can perceive what is normal for it to do. As per Aristotle, a definitive motivation behind man is Eudaimonia/Beatitude (arriving at an ideal association with God); in any case, Whilst this may have been substantial in the fourth century BCE, Aristotle's words would not look good with a secularist society and would therefore debilitate individuals from adhering to these laws. Aristotle characterized nature as, "that which is similarly legitimate all over the place… characteristic is perpetual and has a similar power all over the place", and this would later impact Aquinas in his progressive system of Laws. Cicero (first Century BCE) is another savant that is intensely tied up inside NML; in truth he is regularly called 'the dad of NML'. In his book On the Republic, he expressed, "one endless and constant law will be substantial for all countries and all occasions", further reflecting Aquinas' Laws (Eternal Law, Divine Law, Natural Law and Human Law). The way that individuals from the beginning of time have accounted that there are laws to human instinct adds more noteworthy legitimacy to Aquinas' words on the grounds that there are individuals of different social orders and religions that have arrived at comparative resolutions. Indeed, even Plato, known as having inverse plans to Aristotle, addressed the possibility of Natural Law in The Republic when he portrayed, "a city which would be set up agreeing with nature". The degree to which this goes about as a quality is far from being obviously true in light of the fact that countless advocators doesn't really mean truth. While those that concur with the idea of Argumentum advertisement populum would guarantee that numbers equivalent truth, I would contend something else, utilizing the case of the world being level — in light of the fact that thousands accepted this was the situation, it didn't imply that they were right.

Cicero and Aristotle were huge in the foundation of NML; in any case, maybe the best impact was simply the Bible since Aquinas was intensely strict Christian priest who is known to have said in a lyric, "we are on the whole frantically enamored with a similar God". One can see generous parallels among NML and the Bible, especially in St. Paul's Epistles to the Romans where it says, "When Gentiles, who don't have the law, do instinctually what the law requires". As with NML, it is suggested that law is inside human instinct and that individuals have a similar good rules for themselves. "The formation of the world has been obviously seen in the things that have been made", (Romans 1:20) appears to have additionally impacted Aquinas. It appears that Aquinas translated that characteristic disclosure alludes to what God has took into account man to see normally. In this manner, by getting nature, one can get God. It is unavoidable that numerous Christians would watch this scriptural impact similar to an incredible quality on NMLs part since, according to numerous unyielding Christians, the Bible is a solid source to work with (particularly since it is "the expression of God"). As a secularist, nonetheless, I don't view this as a quality and in the event that anything, I would contend that it was a shortcoming. In NML, Aquinas does obviously make the supposition that there is a God — he ventures to such an extreme as to make one of his essential statutes venerating God — in any case, 21st Century Western milieus are basically secularist, thus one must question exactly how much truth a strict hypothesis, for example, this holds these days. A few scholars may contend that a hypothesis with such a scriptural premise can offer reasonable advantages to society. In reality, the American Philosopher, William James, stated, "this kind of joy is discovered no place however in religion", and keeps up that religion, regardless of whether bogus, can be the best way to pursue. Inside NML, Aquinas utilizes the Cardinal Virtues to recognize genuine and clear merchandise and help individuals in observing the laws that God has set for us; these ethics — reasonability, balance, backbone and equity — perpetually offer energy if people choose to embrace them. The three ideals of the Bible (confidence, expectation and philanthropy) comparably advance consideration and empathy between individuals. The seven dangerous indecencies also manage individuals, even non-Christians, in carrying on with a decent life. As per Aquinas, "Indecencies ought to be evacuated before excellencies are planted, as per Psalm 33:15: \"Turn away from abhorrent, and do good,\" (Summa Theologica). On the off chance that one evades the indecencies and builds up the ideals, they will eventually in every case effectively use reason and keep to normal law. I do feel for this to be a sensible quality of NML in light of the fact that it urges more individuals to be sacrificial and kind, and in this way it can have an extraordinary down to earth impact on any general public. In any case, I feel as if there is a logical inconsistency in Aquinas' reference to the significance of restraint since it is to some degree interestingly with the essential statute of endurance — NML states that one should battle in self-preservation as opposed to controlling themselves.

NML is an absolutist hypothesis — at the end of the day, it must be pursued without question whatever the conditions. Aquinas proposed the essential statutes, the essential statutes are the undeniable standards from which the manages of reason intelligently stream, as a method for overseeing one's ethical quality. They are self-safeguarding, propagation, instruction of youngsters, living in the public arena and venerating God — the most significant of these being endurance. These statutes are all inclusive and in his book, Summa Theologica, Aquinas says, "Characteristic law is the equivalent for all… there is a solitary standard of truth… known by everybody.". There are those that would contend for this to be a quality in Aquinas' contention since it guarantees that there is no uncertainty with respect to how man ought to respond to some random circumstance. The way that all individuals know about these fixed principles takes into account their to be more prominent cultural request and subsequently has a down to earth impact in forestalling political rebellion. This was depicted especially well by Bossuet, a backer for the absolutist guideline of King Louis XIV who asserted that, "it is just consideration and carefulness that can spare us from shocks", and that it could counteract social turmoil. I can see reason in these cases; all things considered, rules which are effectively comprehended are bound to be pursued. The way that the hypothesis is deontological further builds up this quality on the grounds that each activity is naturally fortunate or unfortunate in itself, which perpetually makes it a lot less complex to pursue. Furthermore, the deontological component keeps up that activities are non-considerable; people have no power over the results, just their activities and expectations, thus it could be contended that this gives individuals more authority over their ethics. Others would address whether one can ever naturally pass judgment on an activity? Definitely one should likewise consider the outcomes since at last this is the part that will have an impact.

There are those that have contended that absolutism is a negative thing since it offers no space; in any case, Aquinas' optional statutes challenge this shortcoming since they make the hypothesis progressively adaptable. The auxiliary statutes are explicit guidelines, for example, just having one life partner, which can be deciphered relying upon the setting of the circumstance and in this manner make the hypothesis progressively adaptable. Aquinas himself stated, ""It's optional statutes… however they are unalterable in most of cases… can all things considered be changed on some specific and uncommon event." (Summa Theologica). These manages are accomplished through an increasingly mind boggling procedure of thinking. For instance, generation is one of the essential statutes, and the sexual organs comparably have the reason for proliferation. This implies it isn't right for one to utilize these organs in a manner that doesn't make posterity. This is clear in the Bible when Oman is executed in light of the fact that he "spilled his seeds… realized the kid would not be his" (Genesis 38:9). St. Paul perceived that it isn't constantly conceivable to observe characteristic law and work towards goodness "since all have trespassed and missed the mark regarding the brilliance of God" (Romans 3:23). People will consistently miss the mark regarding God's best for them on account of The Fall and man's infringement of their ideal association with him, and along these lines it is significant that there is adaptability inside common law. One could consider for this to demonstration for NML; in any case, it additionally brings up the issue of whether this makes the hypothesis relative rather than total. In the event that laws can rely upon circumstance, without a doubt it isn't as target as is initially suspected?

NML has additionally been named as obsolete and no longer pertinent in the 21st Century. Aquinas created NML in a pre-logical age before Darwin's hypothesis of advancement was distributed. Advancement recommends that man is the consequence of possibility and not of God and clarifies that man is keen on endurance not due to regular law but since of developed intuition. It further expresses that man is a self-intrigued creature which repudiates Aquinas' case that all individuals are normally in