Application of toxicology in the field of environmental health and safety

Explain how dose-response data are utilized for risk assessment.
Discuss the relationship between risk assessment and risk management.
Identify and explain how at least three fields of toxicology contribute to areas of environmental safety and health.
Research and discuss one current event (within the last six to eight months) that exemplified the relationship between toxicology and environmental safety and health.


Sample Solution

Application of toxicology in the field of environmental health and safety

Dose-response assessment is a critical element of hazard characterization. Dose-response assessment characterizes the quantitative relationship between exposure (usually determined in toxicity studies) and the occurrence of adverse health effects. Typically applied or administered dose, rather than effective tissue dose, is used to develop the dose-response relationship. As a rule, the higher the dose, the greater the frequency or intensity of the adverse reaction to a chemical. Risk management is the macro-level process of assessing, analyzing, prioritizing, and making a strategy to mitigate threats to an organization`s assets and earnings. Risk assessment is a meso-level process within risk management.

With regards to the selection process, Llorens and Kellough (2007) asserted that the ability of the organization to employ highly-qualified and effective workforces depend, in large part, on the manner in which selection is performed. Therefore, the selection process plays an important role in ensuring that the organization hires only the best talents in the market. Generally, the primary goal of the selection process is sift and eventually determine the best candidate from a pool of qualified applicants. In relation, Robertson and Smith (2001) noted that in choosing the selection tools and approaches, it is important to pay attention to the ability of selection tools to predict future job performance.

Among the commonly used selection tools are the structured interview, employment background checking, and the psychological tests. The structured interview in particular, are conducted to systematically screen candidates based on a set of pre-determined criteria or attributes (Hallwood 2009). Background checking on the other hand, is conducted to eliminate undesirable candidates (Randall and Randall 2001). Furthermore, Randall and Randall (2001) claimed that employment background checking is a simple and inexpensive in nature. Meanwhile, psychological tests are also conducted to objectively assess the skills, abilities, behavior, aptitude, and attitude of the candidates (Randall & Randall 2001). Through these selection tools, the organization could structurally determine which among the applicants qualify for the position, in a manner that would limit the chance of hiring inappropriate candidates.

For the employees on the other hand, selection techniques, such as structured interviews, employment background checking, and psychological tests, provide equal chance of getting selected for the position. With the formal selection techniques and approaches, all applicants for the job get equal opportunity in getting hired, as all candidates will be required to undergo the process. Generally, potential employees see the selection process as a systematic and objective way of selecting the best candidates as bias and prejudice ar