“Constructing and Interpreting Graphic Displays of Behavioral Data

Setting the Scene:

Sherry is a 15-year-old girl diagnosed with autism and severe intellectual disabilities. Her Individualized Education Program (IEP) team met to discuss Sherry’s serious, self-injurious behavior of hand biting that has resulted in significant tissue damage requiring medical attention. Prior interventions attempted by the school staff were response blocking, physical restraint, and mechanical restraint (arm splints). An initial Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) conducted by the consulting Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) revealed that the apparent function of the hand biting was negative reinforcement in the form of escape from task demands. Based on this assessment, the BCBA developed a Differential Reinforcement of Alternative behavior (DRA) intervention in which Sherry was taught to use her hand to squeeze a stress ball when non-preferred demands were presented. The teacher and other individuals involved with Sherry were trained to allow immediate escape whenever Sherry squeezed the stress ball during instruction. In addition, instructional material was altered so that the learning tasks were easier with the goal of gradually increasing task difficulty. Baseline data was taken for 10-days and the DRA intervention was implemented on day 11. On day 21, the BCBA employed a reversal design in which the intervention was stopped to verify that it was indeed the intervention that was responsible for the behavior change.

According to your readings, what are the six primary benefits of using graphs as tools to measure the effectiveness of interventions, and why are they important? Discuss two of the benefits that you feel are most relevant to the current case and explain your reasons for your choices.
Based on your visual analysis of the data in the graph (above), was the DRA effective in reducing Sherry’s hand biting? Discuss the purpose of the reversal design and identify the type of reversal design reflected in the graph.
Guided Response Posts:

Respond to a peer’s primary post by explaining the benefits (purposes) of reversal/withdrawal designs and the risks.

Respond to a second peer’s post by discussing two specific ethical guidelines that are relevant in Sherry’s case.

Sample Solution

sed today, having been adjusted into regular talk. In any case, Hook likewise notes it is a huge jump to accept these classes are constantly associated with a “superseding centrality corresponding to different classes” (Hook, 1955, p.39). It can’t be said that each disparity in history was brought about by class battle, nor that each class battle is identified with monetary components (Hook, 1955, p.39). Taking a gander at recorded injuries, for example, Crusades or “patriot developments, for example, Hitlerism” (Hook, 1955, p.40). an extremely minor level of these awful occasions might be financially represented.

Convincingly, Marx’s enthusiasm for destroying imbalance is emphatically depicted all through his work. We see Marx’s respect for social equity through his plans to nullify distance in the public arena, and his longing to “make conditions in which all people could build up their abilities and gifts without limit” (Aarons, 2009, p.100). This basically accomplishes what he decides to demonstrate against Hegelian way of thinking in delivering a hypothesis of progress; bereft of reflection. Refreshingly, Marx’s work principally centers around human instinct viewing man as “a normally innovative creature” (Hook, 1955, p.21) put inside a prohibitive industrialist setting. Humankind is choked by its social outside, while inside socialism the stipend of self-articulation, access to awareness and imagination (Ritzer, 2000, p.71) permits it to flourish. In spite of this solid side interest for mankind, the counter utopianism of Marx’s work further reinforces his hypothesis as he prevented the creation from securing “a nonexistent state” (Webb, 2000, p.2), establishing his hypothesis in “genuine propensities” (Webb, 2000, p.8). Along these lines, dodging the absence of a “certifiable association among means and finishes” (Webb, 2000, p.8). I acknowledge Marxism as the hypothesis it was planned to be and not just ‘hypothetical practice’ or an ‘idealistic dream’. I trust Marx satisfactorily encouraged the move from philosophical vision to chronicled realism on grounds of exact assessment and reality, giving a hypothesis of which effectively connects with history, and remains progressively important in the present society, as it was during the 1800’s.