Consumer motivation

One of the lessons of this section is that customer dissatisfaction has severe
market implications. The tendency that negative experiences are shared at a
higher rate than positive experiences on social media is called “negativity
bias.” Discuss ways of how consumers can be motivated to share their
experiences in a more balanced fashion, such that not only negative but also
positive experiences are posted.

Sample Answer

Consumer motivation is the internal process that give consumers the urge and drive to choose a particular product or services over and above others of similar nature. The fulfillment of those needs is what makes consumer come back for the same product or service or opt to look for a separate one. Consumer motivation can be divided into several theories like theory of reasoned action, the Engel-Kollet-Blackwell-model, motivation-need theory and Hawkins stern impulse buying. Consumer motivation is what every retailer needs to focus on as a means of maintaining steady and constant flow of customers.


Albert Bandura was conceived in Canada to Polish outsider guardians in 1925 (Schultz and Schultz, 2017). Subsequent to taking a Psychology class explicitly intended to fill time, Bandura ended up captivated with the theme and proceeded to gain a PhD in the subject in 1952 from the University of Iowa (Schultz and Schultz, 2017). Bandura proceeded to turn into an effective social intellectual scholar accepting that learning happened by watching others in different circumstances (Rathus, 2015). Counting a long history of composing and distributing articles Bandura was the American Psychological Association President in 1974 (Schultz and Schultz, 2017). A large portion of the exploration led by Bandura respected how observational learning affected conduct. Bandura started the exploration of observational learning and behaviorism at a time period wherein Skinner's behaviorism was the most generally utilized side of Psychology of the time (Schultz and Schultz, 2017).


Bandura started a profession in brain science at once in which B.F. Skinner's Operant Conditioning hypothesis still managed the brain science division. Skinner hypothesis depended on the possibility that conduct was found out through an arrangement of discipline and rewards known as operant molding (Schultz and Schultz, 2017). All through Skinner's investigations, subjects would be rebuffed for erroneous conduct successions and would be compensated for right conduct groupings. A case of operant molding as per Skinner would be the point at which a parent compensates a kid for peeing in the can and rebuffing them for ruining clothing (Schultz and Schultz, 2017). Bandura contended operant molding was outrageous and an unnatural type of discovering that could bring about damage before the right conduct is come to. A case of hurtful operant molding would show a kid to swim utilizing operant molding, and the youngster could be harmed before the reward for swimming is accomplished (Bandura, 1969). Rather Bandura recommended that taking in originates from the perception of practices led by others. Because of Skinner and operant molding having been a built up and reliable type of realizing there was a limited quantity of protection from the social learning hypothesis proposed by Bandura (Friedman and Schustack, 2011). Due to Bandura having not been set up in the field of brain science, Bandura's distributions contradicting the operant molding was not acknowledged at first. After the primary distributions of Bandura's first works the nature of work and association with this present reality dominated Bandura's childhood. At around a similar time Bandura was creating and presenting the Social Learning Theory the innovation of the TV had turned out to be mainstreamed. The TV was a ground-breaking source that youngsters would, and proceed to, copy both intentionally and unknowingly. A significant number of the analyses performed by Badura later was impacted by the impact of TV and demonstrating practices.

Social Learning Theory

Bandura turned out to be broadly known for the Social Learning Theory, which can likewise normally known as the

General Principals

Bandura didn't have confidence in the oblivious redundancy of mimicking conduct, rather that an individual deliberately chose to rehash a conduct that had been recently watched (Friedman and Schustack, 2011). Bandura presented and assisted the training and works in observational learning. Observational learning alludes to a type of learning by watching others, for example, guardians and parental figures, in different circumstances, for example, cooking, mingling, and different everyday utilitarian errands (Bandura, 1969). So as to choose which practices to mimic, Bandura accepted that there were different mental procedure a kid experienced so as to figure out what conduct to impersonate (Bandura, 1963). One procedure Bandura delineated was the reaction outcomes to the model and impersonation in which kids that saw a forceful conduct being remunerated were essentially bound to copy the forceful conduct. Youngsters that watched the discipline of forceful conduct were essentially less inclined to emulate the forceful conduct and held little separation from the control gathering (Bandura, 1963). The subsequent procedure sketched out was the job nurturance played upon the helps of imitative conduct. Youngsters that watched a warm, friendly, or compensating conduct by the parent or overseer when playing out the takes were bound to connect the action with positive qualities, in this manner, expanding the inspiration of the kid to copy the conduct (Bandura, 1963). The nurturance guideline in observational learning is like the reward framework in operant molding. On the off chance that the parent or guardian seems to feel remunerated by the undertaking the youngster is bound to repeat that conduct despite the fact that the kid has not been compensated by and by.

All together for observational figuring out how to happen there must be models, the thought or individual the conduct is designed according to, and onlookers, or the individuals with the beha­­vior that is being influenced (Rathus, 2015). A mainstream study led by Bandura in regards with the impacts of observational learning is the Bobo doll analyze. The investigation included two gatherings of kids and an inflatable doll. The control gathering didn't observer any grown-up play or be around the inflatable doll. The second gathering of kids viewed a grown-up maltreatment, hit, kick, and holler at the doll. After the grown-up left the room the youngsters in the subsequent gathering were fundamentally bound to play with the inflatable doll in a forceful or oppressive way (Bandura, 1963). Bandura likewise found that the size of hostility where the test gathering played with the doll didn't change when the kids saw the grown-ups mishandling the doll in person versus on the TV, or as animation characters (Schultz and Schultz, 2017).

Current Applications

Considering the hypothesis made by Bandura includes demonstrating as a strongpoint there are numerous accidental uses of the Social Learning Theory. Bandura to a great extent considered and concentrated on the transmission of hostility notwithstanding the observational learning. For example, with the Bobo doll explore, Bandura inferred that youngsters who are presented to brutal natures, for example, TV programs, vicious neighborhoods, or computer games (Bordens and Horowitz, 2017). The theme of vicious computer games causing rough practices has been an uncontrollably talked about point since the development of the TV. The hypothesis sketched out by Bandura has been refered to in numerous exploration examines on the particular results of brutal computer games since the disclosure of the Social Learning Theory. The Bobo doll try alone has been reproduced various occasions over the world. An examination in Lebanon led by McHan found that when youngsters were demonstrated a video of forceful play with the Bobo doll the kids were bound to play forcefully in a later play session. Youngsters that were demonstrated the peaceful video of a kid playing with toys were essentially less inclined to play forcefully later on (Bordens and Horowitz, 2017). Bandura's hypothesis of social and observational learning has additionally been applied to studies directed on the presentation to animosity and brutality in regular settings. An examination roused by Bandura was led by Gorman-Smith advertisement Tolan so as to investigate the impacts of violet networks on male minorities. Gorman-Smith and Tolan found there was a huge positive relationship between's savage neighborhoods and the hostility, misery, and stress felt by male minorities (Bordens and Horowitz, 2017). As the viciousness in the networks expanded so did the animosity and feelings of anxiety of the male minorities.

Bandura's hypothesis has likewise been applied through ads and different types of notices. Organizations have equipped the ads of items to explicit, receptive spectators. At the point when a business for an item delineated the entertainer in the business to be prominent, appealing, or had other attractive qualities the closeout of the item expanded (Bordens and Horowitz, 2017). Something very similar likewise occurs with internet based life. At the point when a post winds up viral or prevalent numerous individuals have cooperated with that post or have watched it on various occasions. There is an expansion in the quantity of posts emulating, copying, or reproducing said video or post (Mbati, 2013). At the point when susceptible individuals discover recordings or posts that have brought about outrageous prevalence for others of a similar age the propensity to emulate the conduct increments. This can be credited to Bandura's Social Learning Theory. At the point when a conduct is watched and seems to have been compensated, there is an expanded potential for reproducing said conduct, for example, with the prevalence of a viral video.