Criminal Conduct and Criminal Law

Determine whether or not the Ex Post Facto Clause can be used as a defense to prohibit the increase in federal minimum/mandatory sentencing guidelines after a federal defendant has committed the crime. Provide a rationale to support your position.
Explain the distinction between criminal, tort, and moral wrongs. Next, support or criticize the premise that the standards set by moral laws are higher than those set by criminal law.
Identify and discuss the differences between solicitation of another to commit a crime and a conspiracy to commit a crime. Next, support or criticize the use of the unilateral approach to conspiracy convictions.
Identify the four (4) goals of criminal law, and discuss the manner in which these four goals effectuate the purpose of protecting the public and preventing the conviction of innocent persons.
Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar types of websites do not qualify as academic resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:
This course requires use of new Strayer Writing Standards (SWS). The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details.
Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow SWS or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student's name, the professor's name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
Describe the nature and history of American criminal law.
Explain the role of individuals and federal, state, and local government agencies in crime fighting and prosecution of criminal offenses.
Analyze the essential legal elements of criminal conduct.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in criminal law.
Write clearly and concisely about criminal law using proper writing mechanics.

Sample Answer

An ex post facto law is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law. Ex post facto can only be a defense where the alleged criminal activity was done before a legislation prohibiting the same was passed. Criminal wrong is a wrong

Mars is included in innumerable sci-fi books, true to life books, kid's shows, movies, and that's just the beginning. Be that as it may, what amount do we think about the Red Planet? I would state that the normal individual just has a superficial information on this significant piece of our nearby planetary group. Accordingly, I will do equity to this planet by giving insights concerning it with the goal that the secret of Mars can be deshrouded. I will go over its specialized data, for example, its general depiction, inward structure, surface topography, soil, hydrology, geology, air, atmosphere, circle, and livability.

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in our close planetary system. It is additionally the second-littlest planet in our close planetary system. By distance across, Mars is half as little as Earth, and is likewise less thick than Earth (Williams, David R.). Mars is named after the Roman divine force of war, and is regularly called the "Red Planet" (Zubrin, Robert; Wagner, Richard ).

Like Earth, Mars has a thick metallic center with less thick material encompassing it (Nimmo, Francis; Tanaka, Ken). Its center has a range of around 1,794 ± 65 kilometers (1,115 ± 40 mi), generally including iron and nickel, with a touch of sulfur (Rivoldini, An., et al.). By gauges, the center is about twice as wealthy in lighter material than Earth (Jacqué, Dave). Despite the fact that lethargic, there is a silicate mantle that overlays the center, which made the structural plates on the planet.

The surface topography of Mars is like Earth, with certain subtleties. Like Earth, Mars is an earthbound planet, implying that its surface is generally made out of minerals, oxygen, metals and different substances that include rock. The primary material the outside of Mars is made of is tholeiitic basalt (McSween, Harry Y, et al.), and the vast majority of the surface is shrouded in granulated iron oxide dust (Christensen, Philip R.,et al.).

Martian soil is somewhat soluble and has hints of magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chlorine. These are components found on Earth and are utilized for the development of vegetation (BBC News). What's more, the dirt on Mars has a pH of 7.7, and has 0.6% of salt perchlorate (Chang, Alicia).

Due to air pressure, tragically fluid water can't exist on the Red Planet (NASA). There are two polar ice tops on Mars, which are for the most part made out of water. Ice water is conjectured to be caught inside the cryosphere of the planet (ESA). In any case, there is proof that fluid water once existed on Mars, and that there could be fluid water later on ("Mineral in Mars 'Berries' Adds to Water Story").

In 1810, the primary maps of Mars' geology was made by Johann Heinrich Mädler, which integrated ten years of perceptions. The markings on the first guide were just single letters as condensings for complete names (Sheehan, William). At present, numerous dialects and names go with maps of Mars, with the general highlights of Mars depicted by old style folklore, cavities being named after expired researchers, and even towns and urban areas. Valleys are either named after "Mars" or "star" in various dialects, or named after waterways (Planetary Names).

Let us investigate its climate. Around, four billion years prior, Mars lost its magnetosphere in all likelihood as a result of space rock strikes (Wired). Because of this, sun based breezes straightforwardly impact the planet's ionosphere, which brings down environmental thickness. As far as rates, 96% of it is carbon dioxide, 1.9% argon, 1.8% nitrogen, with almost no oxygen and water (Williams, David R.).

Mars is frequently called a sister planet to Earth in light of its atmosphere, which has Earth-like seasons. This similitude is because of the tilts of the two planets on their rotational tomahawks. In any case, the lengths of the seasons on Mars are twice as long, in light of the fact that Mars is a more prominent good ways from the Sun than Earth. Despite the fact that Mars has outrageous low temperatures, it has likewise has a level of agreeable temperatures for human life. In any case, Mars has the biggest residue storms in the universe, so living on Mars would not be that simple (Discover Magazine).

The Red Planet has a peculiar circle. As per Universe Today, "Mars' normal separation (semi-significant hub) from the Sun is 227,939,200 km (141,634,852.46 mi) which is around one and half times the separation among Earth and the Sun (1.52 AU). Contrasted with Earth, its circle is likewise rather unusual (0.0934 versus 0.0167), running from 206.7 million km (128,437,425.435 mi; 1.3814 AU) at perihelion to 249.2 million km (154,845,701 mi; 1.666 AU) at aphelion. At this separation, and with an orbital speed of 24.077 km/s, Mars takes 686.971 Earth days, the likeness 1.88 Earth years, to finish a circle around the Sun" ("The Orbit of Mars. To what extent Is a Year on Mars?"). This makes Mars hard to screen as far as its circle.

The most squeezing question about Mars is whether it is tenable. As per The Planetary Society, "Long haul residence on Mars will expect us to ace the transformation of crude Martian materials into assets we can use to endure. Luckily, Mars has an abundance of these materials, making it apparently the most human-tenable spot in the close planetary system, other than the Earth itself" (The Planetary Society Blog). The parts of Mars that appears to be engaging researchers as far as its tenability is "environmental CO2, air N2 and argon, H2O from the air and polar ice, perchlorates in the regolith, nitrates in the regolith, basaltic rocks, and fluorine" (The Planetary Society Blog).

In light of this specialized data, we can see Mars with a much more clear personality. We can comprehend why Mars is supported as the following spot for people to live: it has comparative seasons, it has an undiscovered potential as ice water, and with the correct innovation, we can live there unperturbed. Inside the following 50 years, it might be conceivable that the primary provinces on the Red Planet will manifest.


Zubrin, Robert; Wagner, Richard (1997). The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must. New York: Touchstone. ISBN 978-0-684-83550-1. OCLC 489144963.

Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Mars Fact Sheet." National Space Science Data Center. NASA. Recovered June 24, 2006.

Nimmo, Francis; Tanaka, Ken (2005). "Early Crustal Evolution Of Mars." Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 33 (1): 133–161. Bibcode:2005AREPS..33..133N. doi:10.1146/