Earth Science—Dinosuars

1. Let’s say you’re hanging out with family around the dinner table, and between mouthfuls of turkey they ask what you’ve learned about dinosaurs. You reply that one of the most interesting things you’ve learned is that all birds ARE dinosaurs, including the turkey that everyone is eating! Your family is skeptical, and concerned that you’re being taught a bunch of rubbish. What FIVE lines of evidence would you use to respond? In other words, of all the evidence we’ve discussed, what FIVE things do you think best demonstrate the evolutionary link between dinosaurs and birds? Remember, you’re trying to convince your family, so you also need to EXPLAIN THE SIGNIFICANCE of each piece of evidence.

2. Read this National Geographic article ( and answer the following questions:

(A) About how many bird species are there? (It’s worth noting that there are about 5000 species of mammals.

(B) Thick-billed murres use their wings to fly and swim, diving into oceans to feed. How deep can they dive?

(C) Corvids (which include crows, ravens, and jays) are among the most intelligent and social of all birds. The article refers to a YouTube video of a crow using a lid for what purpose?

(D) There’s an individual bird, a red knot tagged as B95, that has flown more miles than separate what two objects?

(E) At one point, the author quotes Shakespeare to epitomize the whole point of this essay. Read the last four paragraphs closely, and explain how King Lear’s lament (“”O, reason not the need!””) relates to why we should value birds.

Sample Solution

Earth Science – Dinosaurs

The present scientific consensus is that birds are a group of maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs that originated during the Mesozoic Era. A close relationship between birds and dinosaurs was first proposed in the 19th century after the discovery of the primitive bird Archaeopteryx in Germany. Birds and extinct non-avian dinosaurs share many unique skeletal traits (Chiappe, Luis M. 2009). Tyrannosaurus rex was a theropod, so was Velociraptor. A suite of skeletal similarities offers the best evidence of the connection between theropods and birds. Of all the Hollywood dinosaurs that we know and love, Velociraptor is the closest relative of modern birds.

sector performing a significant role. This was the economic version implemented during the last part of the Great Depression, the World War II, and the post-war economic expansion observed during 1945-1973. Keynesianism lost its stimulus during the 1970s economic decline and counter-revolution. The recent global financial crisis has caused the rebirth of Keynesian theory in economic models. This essay will describe Keynesianism and will then try to explain its rise and fall.

Keynesian economics also called Keynesianism is an economic ideology of total spending in the economy called aggregate demand and its influence on output and inflation. Keynesian economics was created by the well-known British economist John Maynard Keynes in 1930 in an effort to apprehend the Great Depression. Keynesianism led economics theories and policy after world war II until late 1970s (Kenton, 2019). Keynes was in favor for expanded government expenditures and put down taxes to increase demand and take the global economy out of the slump. Consequently, Keynesian economics was utilized to refer to the notion that ideal economic execution could be reached, and economic crashes avoided by shaping aggregate demand via activist equilibrium and economic interference policies by the government. Keynesian economics is viewed as a “demand-side” idea that concentrates on changes in the economy over the short term. (jahan, mahmud and papageorgiou, 2014)
To understand Keynes, it is important to note that unlike most economists nowadays, his key target was to get completely rid of unemployment: the “real problem, fundamental yet essentially simple is to provide employment for everyone.” His objective for unemployment is “the sort of level we are facing in wartime less than 1 per cent.” Keynes strongly denied that the fundamental cause of unemployment is wage and price rigidities (Higgs, 1995). He said that once full employment is reached then markets can work freely. He also claimed in his book “The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money” that socialization of investment incorporating public-private partnership, might be needed to secure full employment (Keynes, 1936). He opposed to an economy which generated far less than it could, a problem which left millions of people unemployed in economies where work is not only social status, but source of revenue.
The significant impact of Keynesianism throughout the World War II is widely attributed to the obliteration of mass employment, which occasioned in an extreme influence and spread of Keynesianism connecting to the government’s duty of upholding full employment.( (Higgs, 1995) For example, in 1944, the UK government espoused a plan towards ensuring a “high and stable level of employment” as a part of its employment policy (, 2012). In the USA, the Employment Act of 1946 displayed the commitment of the Federal Government in embracing measures to accomplish “maximum employment, production and purchasing power”. The dedications by both the UK and the USA were of ultimate importance concerning the spread and influence of Keynesianism, even though they were lacking the ways of reaching the stated aims of maximum employment (, 2012)
When looking at the case of the United Kingdom, K