education in America

Many Americans believe that access to a good education is all that is needed to overcome inequality in U.S. society. Do you agree? Why or why not?

Sample Answer


As the U.S continues to experience the widening income gap between the very wealthiest and marginalized communities, education access has been cited as the leading contributor to the existing inequality. This according to me remains undisputed fact. This is because when a certain race, class, ethnicity and gender are not given access to quality education which is affordable, it means their knowledge capacity in various field of studies will be limited. This impacts negatively on individual citizen in the sense that such there will be limited opportunities that can be accessed on basis of lack of proper training and educational skills that are required in job areas. As a result, income generation will still remain a challenge hence low standard of living and widened gap compared to other children of different race, religion with superior educational opportunities. Actually in 2002, President George Bush authorized the program dubbed as No Child Left Behind with an aim to alleviate access to education for low-income students. This implied that the existing gap between the poor and the marginalized which causes inequality can be attributed to access of quality education.

There are three principle hypotheses that exist concerning HR practice moves in MNCs (1) MNCs will pursue their basic practices regardless of the nation they are in because of worldwide homogeneity or ethnocentricity, (2) that they will modify their strategies to the neighborhood nation (nearby isomorphism), or as duality speculations recommend, the MNC faces clashing weights and thusly (3) blend their very own practices in with that of neighborhood rehearses (Brewster, Wood and Brookes 2008, p. 320) which pursues all the more near the possibility model, or model of 'best fit' (Khan 2011, p.78). Research proposes that MNCs that consolidate some neighborhood responsiveness will in general have more achievement (Caligiuri and Stroh 1995, p. 494). Regularly, there are numerous issues that outcome in the endeavor to move a HR practice from base camp to backup branches (Kostova 1999, p. 308). These issues can be sorted as being either natural (ie. structure of the organization) or outward (ie. nation, culture, legitimate structure) to the firm (Gamble 2003, p. 370). Be that as it may, as expressed by Ahvik and Björkman (2015, p. 497), "the capacity to move authoritative practices over various areas is a potential wellspring of upper hands for worldwide organizations (MNCs)," further repeating the significance of understanding what components influence HR practice moves from central command to backups, and to comprehend the numerous institutional settings that assume a job in the variables that influence HR practice moves. As expressed by Chung, Bozkurt and Sparrow (2012, p. 2333), "the hierarchical space of MNCs is portrayed by the contestation between entertainers with contending rationalities from various institutional settings, for example, transnational, home and host national foundations." In request to develop these institutional elements and to develop focal discussions in the worldwide administration writing, assembly versus difference hypothesis and home nation versus have nation impact will be examined straightaway.

Combination versus Dissimilarity

Researchers in IHRM writing have since quite a while ago discussed whether intermingling or disparity will win through the powers of globalization (check for plag) (Paik, Hau-Siu Chow and Vance 2011, p. 648). The union methodology contends that 'accepted procedures' do in certainty exist and can be applied all around while being legitimate and appropriate, in spite of institutional culture or national culture (Pudelko and Harzing 2007, p.536). Intermingling hypothesis underpins the all inclusive use of MNC rehearses because of the idea of globalization and the contended reducing contrasts between associations (McGaughey and De Cieri 1999, p.236). Besides, combination hypothesis accept that administrators over the world hold comparable frames of mind and practices notwithstanding social contrasts that exist (Khilji 2002, p. 233). The issue with 'best practices' is it isn't effectively characterized and regularly neglects to consider these social contrasts (Glinow, Drost and Teagarden 2002, p.124), which drives route to the contention for the uniqueness approach.

The hypothesis of difference contends the inverse and battles that because of various national administration strategies, social and institutional variables, it is hard for there to be cross-national learning of 'best practices' (Pudelko and Harzing 2007, p.537) and that because of these various elements, the executives rehearses will in general contrast thus (Khan 2011, p. 78). Moreover, disparity hypothesis supporters contend that how much practices can be applied all inclusive is dependent upon an assortment of variables including explicit relevant components present in a specific industry and nation (Paik, Hau-Sui Chow and Vance 2011, p. 648). The discussions between assembly versus difference is additionally identified with whether a MNC decides to adjust to the auxiliary condition and confine rehearses, or on the off chance that they rather decide to adopt an institutionalization strategy and apply the 'prescribed procedures' to all areas (Björkman, Fey and Jeong Park 2007, p.431). Looking basically, it very well may be contended that whether a MNC decides to limit or institutionalize their practices can be affected by the methodology the MNC takes, just as by home nation versus have nation impacts.

Home County versus Host-Country Effect

Home nation and host-nation impacts are both nation of inception impacts which essentially alludes to how the conduct of MNCs are affected by and identified with their nation of starting point, attributes of national business frameworks, the economy, preparing and instruction, just as culture (Almond et al. 2005, p. 279). The discussion between home nation versus have nation impact happens while talking about the degree to which these impacts are compelling inside globalizing MNCs (Almond et al. 2005, p. 280). Research has proposed that the nation of origin of a MNC is powerful on work rehearses, and that Western organizations working in Asian nations will in general have HR frameworks that are increasingly efficient, supported and professionalized in contrast with Asian organizations (Bae, Chen and Lawler 1998, p.657). Regularly, MNCs will endeavor to apply rehearses, administration structures and control components that have been installed in their nation however institutional, social, logical and natural elements to backups (Reiche 2008, p.680)

Inverse to home nation impacts, have nation impacts can be comprehended as, "the utilization of host-nation type rehearses by remote organizations when there are noteworthy practice contrasts among home and host nation" (Kluike 2015, p.2211), which suggests that host nations will utilize nearby practices when home nation rehearses vary to much from their own. Other than contrasts in practices of the nation of origin of the MNC, MNCs might be especially disposed to adjust to neighborhood rehearses because of nearby guideline or monetary weights (Reiche 2008, p. 681). These differing states of the host-nation regularly present explicit difficulties to MNCs and consequently require MNCs to adopt an adjusted strategy to HR rehearses because of contradiction issues or nearby issues (Stepién 2009, p. 58).

Stepién's (2009) model shows how host showcase foundations and home market establishments interface and impact authoritative practices in MNCs. The qualities of home market and host advertise organizations impact how and to what degree HR rehearses are moved to backups. An exchange of Stepién's (2009) model in connection to the instance of William Grant and Sons' Ltd. will be explained upon in the Discussion bit of this proposal.

(Stepién 2009, p. 61)

As illustrated, there are regularly numerous difficulties with respect to HR practice moves, and circumstances in which these exchanges don't happen because of nearby weights. To investigate different provokes identified with the exchange of HR rehearses, headquarter driven point of view and the idea of recontextualization will be talked about.

3.2 Headquarter Centric Perspective and Recontexualization

There is frequently the discernment that associations, or in MNCs as this proposal is concerned, have one particular corporate culture, and that the data inside the association and data making a trip from base camp to auxiliaries is comprehended similarly by all workers. This is the thought behind a base camp driven point of view where there is the conviction that MNCs share one corporate culture with their auxiliaries (Søderberg 2015, p. 231). This conviction pursues esteems based authority, which regularly adopts a top down strategy, implying that data is moved from top-level administration down to bring down level workers without thought for different sorts of correspondence (Søderberg 2015, p. 232). Despite the fact that this appears to be a clear approach, it has various detriments including the way that data can get misconstrued and miscommunicated, particularly in the event that it is done in a multifaceted setting (Søderberg 2015, p. 232).

In my dialogs with Gary Brewer, and in my time at William Grant and Sons Ltd., it turned out to be inexhaustibly clear how a lot of exertion and accentuation was put on the organization culture. William Grant and Sons Ltd. has an organization culture that underscores superior and requests greatness. William Grant and Sons Ltd. additionally underscores the significance of procuring the correct individuals, and search for what they allude to as an "uncommon" character. William Grant and Sons Ltd. invests heavily in being a family-possessed organization, and that pride is reflected in the way that the organization's six qualities were made in association with the family. These six qualities include: Be Proud, Be Responsible, Be Professional, Be Entrepreneurial, Think Long Term, and Be Sustainable. It is the objective of the organization for these qualities to be lived by all representatives, and clarifies why the organization concentrates a lot on worker commitment. These six qualities are likewise attached to the organization's regions of upper hand, which they have recognized as: Excellence in Distilling, First Choice Partners, Freedom to Win, and Passion for Nurturing Brands (Company Documents, got during Manager's Shadow Project). These qualities and zones of upper hand are critical to note in connection to this theory, as they identify with the sub question: What job does organization culture and qualities play in HR practice moves?

As examined, headquarter driven point of view is fundamentally worried about the possibility that one particular corporate culture exists. Be that as it may, it goes past this and frequently likewise disregards the capacities and assets that auxiliaries bring to the table (Sartor, Orzes, Nassimbeni, Jia and Lamming 2015, p.1127). So as to move away from headquarter driven point of view the idea of recontextualization should initially be comprehended.

The idea of recontexualization depicts and investigates how various operators make and comprehend certain digressive assets inside social settings (Thomas 2003, p. 776). Despite the fact that recontextualization is regularly utilized in etymological and talk re