Elements of motivation

1) In the simplest sense, motivation involves three elements: (a) what’s important to a person, and (b) offering this in exchange for some desired behavior. Chapter 9 discusses various theories that motivate employees. Select two of the theories discussed in the chapter that currently or previously related to your motivation at work. Explain these theories and how they impacted you at work and why.

2) In a theoretical case about incentives system at Atlanta Public Schools, the Schoolwhich rewards teachers, principals and administrators for improved performance on tests. These rewards can be as high as $25,000 bonus for high performance teachers, and for administrators the rewards can be higher school budgets, or on the negative end lower budgets or school closings. The impact of this strong pay-performance linkage has been increased reports of widespread cheating. Other states too report examples of academic cheating by teachers.

Please address this question: How would you design a pay-performance system that uses powerful incentives to motivate behavior, yet keep the behavior from veering into unethical?

3) Identify one of the short or long term pay-for-performance approaches discussed in chapter 10. Present the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to the class.

Sample Solution

Why E-cigarettes are Better for Smokers than Regular Ones

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Smoking tobacco is most likely one of the most noticeably terrible propensities mankind has created. Starting as a convention of the Native Americans, rehearsed generally on exceptional events, smoking has steadily gotten a sort of mass dependence. Because of the endeavors of tobacco organizations looking to expand their business, individuals began smoking increasingly more frequently; the development of a progressively conventional funnel to a cigarette took some time, yet in the end tobacco turned out to be progressively moderate and simpler to utilize (you currently basically need to illuminate it, rather than having to consistently convey a tobacco pocket, stuff a channel, puff it, etc). Accordingly, passings and medical problems associated with tobacco utilization turned into an overall concern.

A prevalent view is that it is nicotine that slaughters. It is just halfway evident: in spite of the fact that nicotine harms one’s wellbeing (for the most part influencing the cardiovascular framework), it is the tar, carbon monoxide, hard particles contained in tobacco smoke, and a lot of poisonous outflows and overwhelming metals that arrangement the most harm. Nicotine causes fixation, and the smoke wraps up.

These days, there are options in contrast to simple tobacco smoking: the broadly famous electronic cigarettes. Despite the fact that it is fervently discussed whether e-cigarettes are unsafe to smokers’ wellbeing or not, it is difficult to contend that subbing cigarettes with these gadgets accomplishes good overall, since they have various favorable circumstances that can’t be disregarded effectively. Furthermore, though smoking despite everything stays a perilous and unsatisfactory dependence, e-cigarettes may be a not too bad approach to break liberated from it.

Electronic cigarettes convey nicotine to a smoker not through consuming (which clearly suggests breathing in unsafe and dangerous smoke), however through the vanishing of nicotine-containing fluids. An e-cigarette warms up the fluid in an exceptional compartment called an atomizer; the fluid dissipates, and through this fume a smoker gets their portion of nicotine. Accordingly, the procedure of nicotine utilization right now be classified “vaping,” not “smoking.” These fluids as a rule involve glycerol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, propanediol, and some different segments (NCBI). Albeit some of them are not totally innocuous, the concoction levelheadedness of e-cigarette fluids is certainly more secure than the one of a normal cigarette. In any case, careful authority over the levelheadedness of these fluids ought to be built up, and the use of such parts as ethylene glycol and propanediol ought to likely be prohibited. All things considered, if a smoker doesn’t plan to stop, the person in question should consider utilizing e-cigarettes rather than genuine tobacco.

Another valid justification for a smoker to begin utilizing e-cigarettes is that the previously mentioned fluids can contain various measures of nicotine. A substantial smoker should begin vaping utilizing fluids containing up to 24 milligrams of nicotine, and the uplifting news for them is that it is conceivable to step by step decline the portion until zero milligrams are available.

Albeit a few smokers may encounter physical manifestations when attempting to stop smoking tobacco, in most of cases, it is a solid mental part that doesn’t let a smoker surrender their compulsion. It very well may be accepted that there are five primary segments of this mental fixation: 1) having confidence in the unwinding/invigorating impact of nicotine that enables a smoker to manage upsetting circumstances; 2) a smoker’s have to “keep hands occupied” when exhausted, hanging tight for something, feeling apprehensive, etc; 3) associating with “individual smokers”; 4) unwittingly and “consequently” following the propensity; 5) the dread that if a smoker stops, the person will lose something significant, a wellspring of mental help or joy. What’s more, a few smokers think that its tasteful to breathe in/breathe out smoke, or have different motivations to proceed with tobacco utilization. As a rule, smoking is a personal conduct standard comprising of rehashing circumstances and responses. Without disregarding or testing these reasons, it very well may be said that an e-cigarette is most likely a more secure option for an individual who wouldn’t like to surrender nicotine. They despite everything convey nicotine to a smoker’s body (hence satisfying the reasons 1 and 5); they upset programmed smoking depicted in focuses 2 and 4 (since e-cigarettes work uniquely in contrast to their conventional analogs); they permit an individual to keep associating with different smokers during breaks at work, or on different events, as referenced in point 3. In any case, while playing out indistinguishable capacities from customary cigarettes, electronic gadgets are more secure and all the more socially adequate.

What’s more, a simply stylish motivation to incline toward e-cigarettes over their analogs: when dissipated, the fluids taste and smell superior to tobacco. They are sold in an assortment of flavors: melons, apples, cherry, tropical organic product, mint, blueberry, etc. Simultaneously, customary tobacco scents and tastes dreadful for the non-smokers, however for a smoking individual too. Things being what they are, why not harm oneself with poisonous smoke, and in any event substitute it with agreeably smelling fume?

Nicotine compulsion in any of its structures, whether or not it is smoking or vaping, is an immense issue for addicts. It prompts various extreme, incessant maladies and even to death. Simultaneously, there may be a more beneficial option for those smokers who understand the damage they cause to themselves, yet who can’t yet surrender their enslavement. Electronic cigarettes are these days viewed as more secure than customary cigarettes. Fluids utilized in these e-cigarettes contain less dangerous components, and do exclude the items that are regularly singed in cigarettes. Fume from e-cigarettes is for the most part innocuous to non-smokers; it tastes and scents better, which makes smoking e-cigarettes a less censured propensity. At long last, numerous smokers may find that e-cigarettes don’t discourage their motivations to keep smoking, while at the same time making it conceivable to diminish the measures of devoured nicotine and to in the long run get out from under the propensity. Subsequently, without adulating or publicizing e-cigarettes, it can in any case be expressed that they are a progressively best option for smokers.