Genetics and Bioethics

Description

The Introduction:

Gene editing and manipulation is a newer, but rapidly growing field. We have the ability to change, add or delete genes in human embryos, adults and plants alike. We are going to explore both of these topics for this forum. You are to CHOOSE ONE of the ideas below and follow the direction.

The Objective:

Understand the methods and impacts of gene editing on humans and plants

Choice 1: Editing Human Embryos and Adults

With respect to gene editing in human embryos, most research is focused on fixing or removing harmful mutations that may cause diseases, but there are some fears of creating designer babies. In addition, we can edit the genes in adults, if we use a targeted approach. Read the articles below, and then respond to the prompt.

Pro and Con: Should Gene Editing be Performed on Human Embryos? Pro by Harris (2016) and Con by Darnovsky (2016).

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/08/human-gene-editing-pro-con-opinions/

A human has been injected with gene-editing tools to cure his disabling disease. Here’s what you need to know. (Kaiser, 2017) http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/11/human-has-been-injected-gene-editing-tools-cure-his-disabling-disease-here-s-what-you

CRISPR fixes disease gene in viable human embryos (Ledford, 2017)

https://www.nature.com/news/crispr-fixes-disease-gene-in-viable-human-embryos-1.22382

The first CRISPR edited babies are (probably) here. Now What? From: Science Friday

https://www.sciencefriday.com/segments/the-first-crispr-edited-babies-are-probably-here-now-what/

For your original post:

Find a reputable resource, making sure to add an attribute or URL so that we can all view it, concerning gene editing in human embryos or adults.
Make sure to add a descriptive title so that others know what you are discussing.
Briefly summarize the main take home points of the research – make sure to include scientific terminology and discussion (remember, we are in a biology class!).
Some questions to consider: What is your take on the research? Are there any benefits and/or costs? Should we be focusing on this? Is there reason for concern?

Choice 2: Genetic Engineering of Plants

Genetically engineered crops are another controversial topic. They first began as a way to allow those in third world countries to grow crops that could survive in less than ideal conditions (such as drought tolerance, higher yield), and/or were higher in nutrition, meaning there was more benefit to each bite – dubbed the “Green Revolution.” You can read about it from Pingali (2012).

If you would like a little more background on genetic engineering in plants, read these resources:

Genetic engineering and GM crops (ISAAA, 2016)

http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/pocketk/17/default.asp

Safety of genetically engineered foods (NRC, 2004)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK215771/

Genetically modified plants and human health (Key, Ma & Drake, 2008)

http://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.2008.070372

For your original post:

You are to find a resource, making sure to add an attribute or URL so that we can all view it, on genetic engineering of plants. You can choose a specific plant, or discuss the generic practice of modification – but it must be different than anyone else in the class or you will not receive credit.
Make sure the title of your post is descriptive so that others know what you are discussing.
Briefly summarize the main take home points of the research – make sure you use proper scientific terminology and discussion (remember we are in a biology class).
Some questions to consider: Is it ethically responsible to engineer plants? Does it make a difference whether they are geared towards first or third world countries? Will they help or hinder our efforts to feed the ever-growing world population?

Resources:

Darnovsky, M. (2016). Con: Do not open the door to editing genes in future humans. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/08/human-gene-editing-pro-con-opinions/

Harris, J. (2016). Pro: Research on gene editing in humans must continue. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/08/human-gene-editing-pro-con-opinions/

ISAAA. (2016). Genetic Engineering and GM Crops. Pocket K No. 17. Retrieved from http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/pocketk/17/default.asp

Kaiser, J. (2017, Nov 15). A human has been injected with gene-editing tools to cure his disabling disease. Here’s what you need to know. Science. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/11/human-has-been-injected-gene-editing-tools-cure-his-disabling-disease-here-s-what-you

Key, S., Ma, J. K.-C., & Drake, P. M. (2008). Genetically modified plants and human health. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 101(6), 290–298. http://doi.org/10.1258/jrsm.2008.070372

Ledford, H. (2017). CRISPR fixes disease gene in viable human embryos. Nature. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/news/crispr-fixes-disease-gene-in-viable-human-embryos-1.22382

National Research Council (US) Committee on Identifying and Assessing Unintended Effects of Genetically Engineered Foods on Human Health. (2004). Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US). 2, Methods and Mechanisms for Genetic Manipulation of Plants, Animals, and Microorganisms. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK215771/

Pingali, P. L. (2012). Green Revolution: Impacts, limits, and the path ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(31), 12302–12308. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0912953109

Sample Solution

Straightforward Enumerative Induction: This is an observational speculation that is moving from at least one cases to an all inclusive end.

Analogical acceptance: This returns from a given specific perception to another specific perception. It made accentuation on the consistency and consistency between occasions.

Eliminative Induction: This is a dismissal of the Enumerative enlistment since it is seen to be a bogus logical technique. Eliminative acceptance centers consideration around the correct investigation of nature by dismissing and barring noticeable cases after various disposal and refutation arrive at careful finish of the confirmed cases.

The Intuitive Induction: This is essentially worried about having a natural understanding into reality of all inclusive, at that point making endeavors to set up it as a speculation.

Flawless enlistment: In the Perfect Induction, the inductive procedure is culminated by refering to each conceivable case that may bear on the plan of an all inclusive recommendation.

2.3 Hume’s Analysis of Causation

Hume’s most prominent philosophical work, his A Treatise of Human Nature, he starts by bringing up that everything that we know about can be characterized under two features, ‘impression and thoughts.’ The differentiation between these two is the “level of intensity and vitality,” with which they strike upon the human personality. The impressions are more powerful and enthusiastic than thoughts.

Further, concerning our thoughts, we have two distinct resources, one is Memory and the other is Imagination. The memory is a progression of thoughts in a fixed request. Creative mind, then again, has the ability to revise our thoughts in any succession we love. Hume contends that periodically when we think about a thought, we tend to think additionally about a looking like thought, or of a thought that was adjoining to it in time or space, or of a thought that is causally identified with it. These examples are what Hume called ‘the relationship of thoughts.’

On a typical condition, when you push somebody you cause the individual to move eith