Leadership Theories in Practice


A walk through the Business section of any bookstore or a quick Internet search on the topic will reveal a seemingly endless supply of writings on leadership. Formal research literature is also teeming with volumes on the subject.
However, your own observation and experiences may suggest these theories are not always so easily found in practice. Not that the potential isn’t there; current evidence suggests that leadership factors such as emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behaviors, for example, can be highly effective for leading nurses and organizations.
Yet, how well are these theories put to practice? In this Discussion, you will examine formal leadership theories. You will compare these theories to behaviors you have observed firsthand and discuss their effectiveness in impacting your organization.
To Prepare:
• Review the Resources and examine the leadership theories and behaviors introduced.
• Identify two to three scholarly resources, in addition to this Module’s readings, that evaluate the impact of leadership behaviors in creating healthy work environments.
• Reflect on the leadership behaviors presented in the three resources that you selected for review.


Sample Solution

imple View of Reading: One of the widely used conceptual frameworks of reading is ‘The Simple View of Reading’. According to this framework, the concept of reading comprises two components (Cain, 2010). One component is the ability to word reading or the ability to decode the printed word and retrieve the meaning. The other component is language (listening) comprehension skill; retrieve the sense of individual words, clauses and sentences from the sequence of texts (Gough and Tummer, 1986; Hoover and Gough, 1990). This is identified by one simple rule: R=DXC. The term ‘R’ refers to reading comprehension, ‘D’ refers to decoding which should be efficient and logical word recognition. ‘C’ refers to language comprehension. Simple view of reading defines reading comprehension as the aptness to understand word meaning, constructing sentence and interpreting discourse (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) which actually measured by listening comprehension task. Thus word decoding and listening skills are central for reading comprehension (cain, 2010). Reading comprehension considered as the ‘product’ of these two principal components.

This view claims that for efficient reading ability both skills are important. If one skill is not sufficient, other skill may not lead to become efficient reader. Despite of the argument that simple view of reading is not appropriate to explain reading ability, this claim is always considered as a plausible description of reading skill development (cain, 2010).
Overall to learn reading, phoneme manipulation, identify to grapheme sound correspondence (defined as phonological awareness, Anthony and Francis (2005) and word recognition, phonic generation or decoding is essential. As successful decoding skills is dependent on phonological abilities ((Brady & Shankweiler, 1991; Stanovich & Stanovich, 1995; Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1994, cited in Nation & Snowling 1998a), several studies have clearly demonstrated that, phonological awareness and decoding skills are integrated for the best outcome for reading, however, it is also clearly demonstrated that for skilled reading only phonological and decoding skills are not adequate (Anthony, Francis, Anthony, & Francis, 2017; Gillon, 2018; Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Perfetti & Hogaboam, 1975).