logistics and supply chain management

How do logistics and supply chain management differ?
Explain the key developments behind the evolution of logistics and SCM.
Discuss about the three major flows in a typical supply chain.
Identify three examples of companies / products who attempt to think global and act local (‘glocalization’).

Sample Answer

Whereas logistics focuses on transporting goods, supply chain on the other hand is concerned with finished products. Additionally, logistics has to do with coordination and movement of goods. Usually, the logistics of physical goods entails the integration of information flow, materials handling, packaging, transportation and warehousing and in other cases security. Supply chain on the other hand entails planning, sourcing, manufacturing, delivery and lastly return. The most notable logistic performance priorities include the movement of inventory in a supply chain effectively and efficiently and to extend the desired level of customer service at the minimal cost.


The Bengawan Solo River has been well known in Indonesia for a considerable length of time and is frequently referenced in people story and conventional writing. Countless specialists have contemplated the Bengawan Solo River and its bowl in various perspectives including hydrological, socio and social angles.

Java Island, where the Bengawan Solo stream bowl is arranged, normally has two seasons like different districts in Indonesia, for example stormy and dry season. The blustery season ordinarily happens during October to April, and the dry season during the rest of the year. The River Bengawan Solo has a monsoonal character with the most noteworthy release perceived during the four to five months of the blustery season (Hoekstra, 1989). During December to March, muggy air brought to Java Island by W-NW storm commands, creating plentiful precipitation on the island (Hoekstra, 1988). Moreover, stream in the upper catchment of Bengawan Solo waterway bowl has been seen as expanding fundamentally, while in the center and lower catchment a moderate lessening has happened (Pawitan and Haryani, 2012).

A recorded report with respect to huge flood occasion in Bengawan Solo River Basin in 1966 (contextual analysis in Surakarta city), was completed by Taqobalallah (2009). The examination researched the effect of Bengawan Solo flood in 1966 in Surakarta city and network's react to the flood by meeting elderly folks individuals seeing the flood. The examination uncovered that in 1966, Bengawan Solo River had issue with sedimentation and siltation. Additionally, the bank developed by Dutch pilgrim along the stream was for the most part harmed. In light of the data accumulated from the old observers, the legislature and network around then cooperated to clear the flood injured individual, give open kitchen to providing nourishment to the flood unfortunate casualty, and modify the harmed bank after the rising water get recoil.

Other research with respect to the Bengawan Solo River has concerned the strategy to pick appropriate precipitation measuring stations for foreseeing flood release (Sobriyah et al, 2001). This exploration demonstrated that the information at precipitation measuring stations at Jurug, Kajangan, Ketonggo, Babat, and Bojonegoro was reasonable to be utilized for foreseeing flood release on Bengawan Solo River. What's more, Sobriyah (2005) additionally directed research to appraise flood release in Bengawan Solo River Basin utilizing precipitation information of years 1985, 1990, 1991, 1996 and 1997 at Jurug, Kajangan, Ketonggo, Babat and Bojonegoro raingauge stations. The flood estimation was done utilizing a framework based Rational Method with O'Donnell and Muskingum ' Cunge steering (Sobriyah, 2005). This examination was confined to the present atmosphere.

Toward the finish of 2007 and start of 2008, portions of the Bengawan Solo stream bowl were influenced by flooding which numerous losses and cost about 852.89 billion Rupiahs (Indonesian cash, source: Indonesia Ministry of Public Work, 2008). The flood occasion was accounted for by broad communications, both paper-based and on the web (BBWS Bengawan Solo, 2008; Kompas, 3 March 2008 release). In view of these reports, the flood was brought about by a few factors as follows:

1. High precipitation power (around 80 ' 135 mm) which was appropriated consistently across most districts in the bowl;

2. The limit of the Bengawan Solo River was surpassed: this is the second biggest recorded occasion, after the 1966 flood;

3. The flood which struck districts of Madiun and Ngawi (situated in Bengawan Solo River Basin) was the biggest since 1963;

4. Around the Lower Bengawan Solo River Basin (areas of Bojonegoro, Babat, Lamongan and Gresik), the stream water level was the most noteworthy since 1963 (15.97 m);

5. Poor strong waste administration in the flood influenced zones: the uneducated network normally toss the trash into the waterway which reduces the stream work for releasing water and residue.

6. Broken dike along the flood inclined territories.

As indicated by a book composed by columnists and researchers joining a gathering called Kompas Expedition Team (Kompas, 2008) the Bengawan Solo stream bowl has been corrupted from the upstream territory to downstream. It is clarified in the book that the bowl debasement is brought about by a few variables, for example, decrease of timberland territory, diminished vegetation spread to forestall disintegration in upstream zone, transformation of landuse and uncontrolled waste transfer. Moreover, the nearby network develops occasional plants, for example, nut, corn, and cassava along the waterway bank which causes disintegration streaming into the stream during the wet season. This condition triggers sedimentation along the stream, from upper catchment regions (Wonogiri, Sukoharjo, Solo, Sragen, Ngawi) to the lower one (Blora, Bojonegoro, Lamongan and Gresik). Moreover, sedimentation turns into a significant issue in Wonogiri Dam which is arranged in the upstream territory of Bengawan Solo stream bowl. This sedimentation issue likewise influences the exhibition of hydropower framework used in the dam.

Next to the sedimentation issue, the waterway bowl additionally faces a disastrous water contamination issue, in light of the fact that the Bengawan Solo River currently has become a goliath squander repository, either for residential waste or modern waste. Creature cadavers and waste from creature cultivation are discarded in the stream. The stream harm is likewise now exasperated by sand mining exercises rehearsed by neighborhood poor networks along the waterway.

Another logical report concerning the Bengawan Solo River was composed by Hidayat (2009). In view of a few sources, the report presumed that environmental change has affected the flood chance in Java Island including the Bengawan Solo River Basin (Hidayat, 2009). In any case, the report didn't talk about in detail how environmental change may impact flood occasions in the bowl.

UN-Habitat (2009) likewise directed an investigation giving an account of harm to the Upper Bengawan River Basin which was struck by flooding since the most recent 3 years, and specifically the city of Surakarta (Solo). The report asserts that environmental change has caused a changing outrageous precipitation design influencing the city. This has activated flooding which secured around 45 % of Solo city and gave serious effect generally in ghetto settlements along the stream banks (UN-Habitat, 2009).

All in all, inquire about in regards to flooding and related subjects in the Bengawan Solo River Basin by researchers is extremely constrained. Be that as it may, broad communications has effectively educated the event regarding flood.