Meaning of life

1. How can we understand the question "What is the meaning of life?"? Which way of understanding this question do you think is the most defensible, and why?

2. Should we endorse the nihilist response to the question of whether life has any meaning? If we should, does this undercut any reason that we might have for living? Explain your answer here. If we should not, explain why.

Sample Answer


Part II


The estimation of medicinal waste administration in the security of general wellbeing and the earth can't be denied (Thakur and Ramesh, 2015). One worry in the general public these days is the insufficient treatment and ill-advised transfer of restorative squanders in different therapeutic offices because of the destructive impacts of such squanders and its capability to transmit infectious illnesses, which may hurt people and nature. Medicinal care is essential for one's wellbeing, being, and in particular, to one's life in any case, the squanders separated from different restorative administrations and exercises present potential dangers to patients, specialists, individuals around the clinics, and sanitation laborers who manage in average squander treatment and transfer (Sutha, 2018).

As expressed by Longe (2006), legitimate isolation, treatment, and transfer of restorative waste, particularly those that posture hurt and irresistible waste sorts is a vital aspect for accomplishing a free from any danger medicinal waste administration accordingly, a correct advance to wellbeing hazard decrease. The capacity of medicinal offices to survey squanders dependent on their structure, type, and segments can be of help in accomplishing an increasingly economical method for therapeutic waste administration in the general public. Moreover, with the joint endeavors of different restorative staff and laborers to direct in therapeutic waste treatment, a more noteworthy probability of diminished wellbeing risks will turn out accordingly.


The World Health Organization (2007) states that, the waste created by different human services exercises incorporates a wide scope of materials, for example, utilized needles and syringes to dirtied dressings, body parts, indicative examples, blood, synthetics, pharmaceuticals, medicinal gadgets and radioactive materials. Poor the board of these restorative squanders may conceivably hurt the human services laborers, squander handlers, patients and the network to contamination and other chance. It is likewise expressed that it is significant that all medicinal waste materials must be isolated, suitably treated and arranged securely. In an examination, the WHO likewise assesses the disease brought about by infusions utilizing defiled syringes and they discovered that there were 21 million instances of hepatitis B infection constantly 2002, 2,000,000 hepatitis C infection cases, and 260,000 HIV cases.

As per United States Environmental Protection Agency (2017), medicinal waste or social insurance squander is characterized as the subset of squanders that might be defiled by blood, body liquids and other potential irresistible materials. These conceivably irresistible materials are frequently called as managed therapeutic waste that can be found at any medicinal services offices including emergency clinics, restorative inquire about offices and labs, blood donation centers and facilities. Moreover, The Medical Waste Tracking Act of 1988 characterizes medicinal waste as "any strong waste that is created in the determination, treatment, or vaccination of people or creatures, in look into relating there to, or in the generation or testing of biologicals."

Another meaning of therapeutic squander given by Medical Waste Service (2018), restorative squander is whatever is irresistible or may cause contamination. These squanders may contain body liquids and different contaminants. Sharps including needles, therapeutic hardware and other broken glasses are likewise considered as medicinal waste. The waste might be produce during analysis, treatment, restorative research and inoculation.

The World Health Organization (2017) sorted medicinal waste into eight unmistakable sorts. First are the irresistible waste, these are squander cap might be irresistible or that may cause disease. This may incorporate excreta, swabs, hardware, tissues and lab societies. Next are the sharps. This incorporates needles, broken glass, razors, and other therapeutic gear that may cut the skin. The third class are make out of human tissue, body liquids, blood and other creature bodies these are called Pathological waste. Fourth are the radioactive squanders. These waste are comprised of unused radiotherapy fluid, and different supplies and hardware that might be debased with lab look into fluid or radiotherapy fluid. Next are the pharmaceuticals these may incorporate any terminated, unused and debased medications and antibodies, anti-toxins and pills. Synthetic compounds has a place with the 6th class wherein it is made out of solvents, disinfectants, batteries and any overwhelming metals that are found in therapeutic hardware. Mercury from thermometers may likewise be incorporated into this class. Next are the genotoxic squander these waste are considered as the most dangerous and is mutagenic, cancer-causing or teratogenic. Cytotoxic drugs that are utilized in malignant growth treatment additionally fall into this class. The last are the general non-controlled restorative waste or the non-unsafe waste. These are the innocuous waste that contains no blood or organic liquid, including papers, kitchen squander and different various junk.

As indicated by Environmental Protection Agency (2017), medicinal waste can be distinguished into four classifications the irresistible, dangerous, radioactive, and general waste. First are the irresistible squanders. These are squander that may make hurt person. This waste is related or has something to do with restorative hardware that isn't appropriately arranged. In accordance with this class are the obsessive squanders that contain pathogens and expect strategies to be dealt with. Next are the Hazardous waste that incorporates sharps or articles that may cut the skin, for example, syringes, careful hardware and crystal. Synthetic compounds are likewise considered as dangerous waste and some irresistible waste contingent upon how it is utilized. Old drugs and other chemotherapy operators are additionally here and there considered as dangerous. Third are the radioactive squanders, these are squander that originated from disease treatments, atomic prescription medications and medicinal hardware that utilizations radioactive isotopes. Defiled neurotic waste additionally has a place with radioactive as opposed to irresistible. The last classification is general waste, which makes up at any rate 85% of therapeutic waste. These are squander that isn't not the same as family unit squander.


As per Dr. Jeorge Emmanuel (2018), the consuming of medicinal waste will result to an arrival of a startling high measure of incredibly malevolent poisons, for example, Dioxins, a profoundly harmful compound for the earth. It is additionally realized that these Dioxins won't just remain during our time yet in addition to the life expectancy of things to come. On the off chance that it were discharge because of burning of restorative squanders, the impacts of dioxins incorporate malignancy, changes in the conceptive arrangement of male and female and it influences the youngster advancement. Along these lines, Zafar S. (2016) included that restorative waste like gloves, swathes and cloth that are utilized can influence the earth. Body liquids like blood can likewise be the reason to the sullying of territory. These medicinal squanders, if not appropriately arranged, can dirty the air wherein polluted gases go airborne; water in which natural liquids, for example, debased pees and blood adds to the spread of various maladies; and even the dirt wherein therapeutic waste, for example, gloves and syringes that are tossed on the ground won't be deteriorated when it goes underground, therefore making the dirt sullied. Which at that point, influences all types of life. Along these lines, it can add to the development of microorganisms, for example, microscopic organisms and creepy crawlies that conveys various sicknesses that can prompt the transmission of different ailments.

Akter N., Hussainz., Trankier J., and Parkpian P. (2002) declared that not just the individuals of the outside of the medical clinic can be influenced yet in addition the individuals who work inside the offices because of deceptive practice. At the point when emergency clinic staffs were talked with, they are experiencing various kinds of ailments because of the ill-advised isolation and treatment of medicinal squanders, for example, skin illnesses or hypersensitivity, hepatitis and loose bowels. Also, Mastorakis N., Bulacia C., Oprea T., and Philippe D. (2010) condensed that illnesses, which can be spread through tainted syringes and restorative squanders are skin contaminations, for example, rashes, a red spot on the skin that responds to upsetting happenings; ring worm, an ailment that gives off an impression of being a ring-molded mark on the skin; in conclusion, scabies wherein it is a malady that brought about by little creepy crawlies that may prompt tingling and red spot on the skin. These contaminations are brought about by microscopic organisms and parasites, which can be found through unsanitary restorative parts and through door handles of emergency clinic bathrooms. Another sickness brought about by these hardware is viral hepatitis An and B. Hepatitis A will be a viral liver infection that causes apical ailment of the subject. Then again, popular hepatitis B Is a contamination that influences the liver that causes ceaseless maladies which spread through blood and organic liquids. In addition, loose bowels, another infection that is brought about by unsanitary parts, is a disease when the body secretes fluid defecation rather than the strong structure. Cholera, then again, is a genuine sickness that makes an individual regurgitation and regularly prompts demise. In conclusion, typhoid, a transferable malady from polluted nourishment and water.

As indicated by Shikoska B., Shumanov G., Dimova C., and Vankovski V. (2016), therapeutic squanders contain various kinds of illness or malady causing living beings that are totally transferable through nature and the individuals in it. These sort of squanders can be found as a rule in the emergency clinic, private or open, centers, for example, dental centers and ENT centers, nursing and private consideration offices and other medicinal hardware. It likewise covers the organic liquids, for example, semen, blood, pee, bodily fluid, and spit. In any case, Mathur P., Sangeeta P., and Shobhawat A. (2012), said that this will cause an enormous increment at the measures of rodents, creepy crawlies and even worms. This will prompt the spread of various infections, for example, typhoid, cholera, hepatitis, and helps. Moreover, these squanders arranged around the clinics may pull in creepy crawlies and even stray creatures,