What are lancet arches? Describe how and why they are used.
What are flying buttresses? Describe how and why they are used.
What are gargoyles? What are their functions in architecture?
What are barrel vaults?
What is Migration Period art? What is Insular art?
Why is it somewhat difficult to distinguish early Christian art from other art of that time period?
How did Christianity influence art?
What are the characteristics of Byzantine art?
What are the characteristics of Gothic art?
Choose one artwork shown in the unit. Write a two-paragraph art critique of the piece

Sample Answer


1. Official Summary

The motivation behind this exposition is to ponder and assess two parts of my experience which are strife in bunch arrangement and group administration and relate that to authoritative conduct. The significant perspectives I have decided to talk about on are struggle during the gathering development, and group administration. This record has been partitioned into two segments:

In the main area of the exposition, I start by quickly introducing the association (Media insight) I worked for as a Data Analyst and further keep depicting my experience and obligations. Besides, I depict how Media Intelligence relegated a group under my duties to empower our area of expertise meet her month to month goals. The significant perspectives examined in this segment are the showdown I looked with one of my (colleague) partner during our gathering exercises and represent on the system I used to end the contention. By evaluating my general execution decidedly and contrarily, I would have the option to gain from my errors from the information I got a handle on from Organizational conduct, its speculations and apply them in future where significant.

In the subsequent area, I will quickly talk about the preparation I got at media Intelligence and access my authority in my group.

2. Presentation

2.1. Brief introduction MEDIA INTELLIGENCE

Media Intelligence is a business counseling organization made in 2002 by Rostand Tane situated in Cameroon-Yaoundé: Rue Elig-Essono next to OAP and is spent significant time in giving key information to organizations to better vital arranging and basic leadership. The significant center exercises or administrations at Media Intelligence are media explore, showcase ponders, focused knowledge, Media research and experiences (estimation, observing, and exhibitions). Each assistance has a division Unit as explained in the outline beneath and each mondays each Head of Unit or Unit Executive needed to introduce contingent upon the quantity of customers every office had for that period or month. The introductions where by and large organized as; giving a point by point instructions on the clients real and wanted needs, exhibiting how the work would be booked and arranged, and in conclusion giving arrangements (suggestions if pertinent) produced using current perceptions.

2.2. My Role and Core work

At Media Intelligence, I functioned as a Data Analyst and was blessed to be the Head of the Monitoring Unit. Heading the Monitoring unit inferred having some administrative and authoritative abilities or limits since I was required to prepare, create, and deal with a group of 5 media scientists. Our center capacities and exercises in the Monitoring unit were as per the following: following promoting Ads of every one of our Clients in the different Mass Medias: TV, Radio, Newspapers, Social Media, Outdoor (Ooh) which was the initial step. The subsequent advance was to give an itemized investigation on the week after week, month to month consumptions of our customers Ads uses, their rivals and BTL promoting efforts. The third step was to gauge the month to month broad communications uses all things considered and characterize them by segment of action as pursues: autos, Foods businesses, Beverage, Telecommunication, Air, Road Transportation, Forestry, Educational/Institutional, Financial(Banks, Insurance, credit Unions,) Health care and social, , Entertainment(Gambling, Lottery)… .and so forth. My job and capacities suggested sorting out, arranging, instructions, orientating, setting week by week targets and registration, revealing the gathering progression to the head supervisor. As indicated by Stephens (2000) [1] a group alludes to ''at least two cooperating and related people who meet up, sharing duties and utilizing reciprocal abilities to accomplish explicit objectives''. There are various sorts of gatherings ordered under formal (structured by the association to accomplish explicit undertakings or accomplish objectives) and casual gatherings (which are for the most part are social gatherings)

Formal gatherings

The order bunches are made out of cross utilitarian groups (useless) which are people formed from the association's outline and the people in that gathering report legitimately to the director. While the undertaking bunch then again are autonomous and take their own obligations cooperating to finish an assignment. [1] We had an agreement with a media transmission sponsor known as MTN who had marked a 5years inexhaustible agreement with the office and close by, we had different customers like Uniliever, Guinness, and Afrikland First bank mentioning a similar help. The serious issue the majority of this promoters confronted where with the media diffusers, who now and again didn't regard their programing neglecting to embed publicists Ads at required occasions as arranged by the media plan. Subsequently this greatly affected publicists in general activities beginning from their promoting to their creation procedures coming about to a drop in deals and benefits edges to a certain expand.

Having numerous customers close by, I was appointed to deal with the observing unit which was made out of 3 young ladies and 2 young men. We worked as a cross practical group in light of the fact that the gatherings had been created by the Media insight. Media knowledge had made an exchanging framework where every month, the record administrators (Team individuals) changed starting with one division then onto the next. This inferred every month, I worked with account officials from various divisions. The fundamental objective of this framework was empower the record administrators acquaint with the various administrations the office advertised.

2.3. Gathering Formation

There are a sure number of related speculations and approaches related to amass arrangement, for example, the parity, Homan's, propinquity and trade theory.[4],[2] The parity hypothesis which shows the fascination between people having similar qualities, and demeanors though the trade hypothesis then again depicts the advantages or rewards an individual gets in joining a gathering. Homan's hypothesis is appropriate to our gathering arrangement in light of the fact that in spite of the challenges and discussions, we made due as a gathering finishing tuckman's (1997) phases of gathering advancement. As opposed to the equalization hypothesis, we didn't share anything for all intents and purpose given that my colleagues had distinctive instructive foundations from the science and protection space to be exact and some even had a higher expert capability and experience than me.

Homan's hypothesis recommends that the an ever increasing number of people get include in bunch exercises, the more grounded their collaborations and connection develop. Our cooperations advanced step by step with time as we as a whole comprehended what we were attempting to accomplishing given the constrained time we had. As talked about over, the groups were task bunches which had previously being doled out by the association and had been executed in the Media knowledge's hierarchical diagram. Tuckman (1997) proposed a 4 phase model which he later changed to a 5 model on the stages utilized in building up a gathering which are shown in the graph underneath in figure 1. In the sections beneath, I will give a detail examination of Tuckman's gathering improvement stages identified with my involvement with the Media Intelligence on how I had the option to deal with a group which had been shaped by the association and obscure to me.

a. Shaping

At the degree of shaping, the association had just delegated and alloted colleagues to every unit. During our first gathering that held at my office, I attempted to make a well disposed condition whereby every individual was allowed to convey what needs be or herself contributing and sharing his thought, purpose of perspectives, encounters on how we could handle the work in order to meet the organization's month to month objective. The checking unit's objective was to submit 5 consistence reports month to month covering the distinctive mass Medias our customers expected us to screen their advertisements, their rivals methodologies and item situations. I opened the gathering by presenting myself, displaying my instructive foundation (features on last degree), if some preparation on the idea of work completed by the association, and proposed every part to introduce himself quickly. We later on continued in setting up our gathering rules like our gathering days, our correspondences frameworks, the significance of solidarity and the accessible assets put available to us.

Generally, the shaping was smooth as the gathering individuals where receptive, spurred, engaged and enthusiastic. Despite the fact that they were crisply selected, I making the most of their eagerness, ability, open inquiries, and jokes which showed their craving in satisfying the undertaking. We finished the primary stage which is for the most part portrayed by vulnerability and nervousness as proposed by Fred Luthans (1997). [4] The significant results of the framing stage which suggests understanding the gathering's motivation, deciding how the groups would be sorted out, and understanding their significant jobs or what is being required from them.

b. Raging

At the degree of raging, I recommended to make a calendar or timetable we needed to pursue which could empower us handle the work effectively and guarantee we were improving at the correct pace. So I prescribed each colleague to set their own every day and week by week destinations as far as information examination, audits, and work done as such as to know whether the person in question was improving given the voluminous measure of work we had. I gave a lot of techniques, which I accepted were the fattest methods for achieving our gathering objectives.

I was promptly tested by a woman who questioned, proposing it was smarter to work deftly in light of the fact that weight in meeting her week after week objectives could influence her presentation (prompting errors and stress). Her recommendations were very intriguing yet made a little quietness for some time, and I needed to get some information about their contemplations and purpose of perspectives given that we had 4 TV and 5 Radio channels to process, sort out the assortment of indoor and open air information. More to that, we likewise had every day press audits and internet based life screen


Overall one of the most well-known acquired sickness is innate haemochromatosis it is an autosomal latent hereditary scatter which is known for causing serious iron over-burden. It shifts from type 1 up to sort 4 the most well-known is type 1 which is brought about by a change in the HFE quality liable for encoding non old style MHC class 1 protein. Different types are not as normal as type 1 and are typically brought about by modified elements of various proteins which are significant for managing iron homeostasis. While they all contrast in seriousness generally tolerant with (HH) genetic haemochromatosis can't control iron ingestion viably, the expansion in iron develops in the parenchymal organs until it surpasses the body’s stockpiling limit and afterward starts to make harm tissue and organs all through the body, for example, the heart, liver and pancreas. These can prompt the improvement of liver fibrosis, joint pain, coronary illness, diabetes, cirrhosis and unexpected passing. This article will talk about the system associated with the advancement of innate haemochromatosis, pathways engaged with iron assimilation, and transport to the liver, components associated with liver Iron poisonous quality and current biochemical and sub-atomic indicative tests.

Pathways associated with iron assimilation, and transport to the liver

Iron is basic forever it is a significant development factor for the separation and multiplication of pretty much every living cell all through the human body. Most eukaryotic cells need iron for metabolic pathways and are imperative for catalyst capacities (L.POWELL 2002). Iron is consumed over the epithelial cells from the proximal small digestive tract otherwise called the duodenum in a heme or non heme shape anyway generally iron from nourishment is ferric (Fe3+) which isn't effectively assimilated so needs to initially be decreased to ferrous (Fe2+), a ferric reductase compound, (Dcytb) duodenal cytochrome b diminishes (Fe3+) to (Fe2+) and afterward moved into the phones by DMT1 a protein otherwise called divalent metal transporter. Iron would then be able to be put away in the cytoplasm of the villus as ferritin or shipped through the basolateral layer by IREG1 a film protein otherwise called ferroprotein, hephaestin (Heph) is additionally significant in this procedure as it works as a ferroxidase by oxidizing Fe2+ to Fe3+ (L. M. Fletcher and J. W. Halliday 2002).

Plasma transferrin would then be able to tie to press present on the outside of the basolateral body tissue basically reticulocytes and furthermore the liver with the assistance of TfR transferrin receptor. In the liver hepatocytes increase iron in various manners, for example, receptor interceded endocytosis through TfR transfrerrin receptors, iron is then discharged by fermentation inside the endosome and afterward moved by DMT1 all through the endosomal layer where it is put away as ferritin until it is required or utilized in the metabolic procedure. Iron discharged from hepatocyte would for the most part include cerplasmin and Ireg1 which oxidizes Fe2+ to Fe3+ (L. M. Fletcher and J. W. Halliday 2002).

Genetic Haemochromatosis and the HFE Gene

Iron over-burden will in general happen when the administrative procedure above starts to breakdown, if its stores are full the body starts to assimilate less iron anyway iron poisonous quality happens because of an expansion in iron ingestion which brings about harm to tissues and organs around the body like the liver. Innate haemochromatosis is brought about by a quality transformation in HFE that upgrades iron ingestion. The HFE quality is liable for encoding HFE proteins and is situated on the short arm of chromosome 6 at 6p21.3 (L. M. Fletcher and J. W. Halliday 2002).

Anyway this is just for the fundamental kind of HH innate haemochromatosis, as per online mendelian legacy there are 5 sorts of HH, type 2 hemochromatosis otherwise called adolescent hemochromatosis JH which comes in two structures, 2B JH which is caused from a change in the HAMP quality and 2A JH which results from a transformation in HJV quality on chromosome 1q21. HH types 3 and 4 are resultants from a change in SLC4OA1 and TFR2 qualities situated on chromosome 2q32 and 7q22 for type 3 HH (P.Santos, J.Krieger, A.Pereira 2012).

The fundamental sort of HH is a class I MHC histocompatibility complex related quality. MHC class I type proteins partner with beta2M B2 microglobulin which aids the transportation of proteins towards the cell surface. A solitary G A change from nucleotide point 845 is known for causing most HH cases. This transformation happens when amino corrosive cysteine is substituted for tyrosine at position 282 of the quality which causes a change C282 (L. M. Fletcher and J. W. Halliday 2002). This outcomes in a disulphide bond being not able structure which is required in keeping up protein adaptation, as a result of this HFE proteins can never again connect with B2 microglobulin which is required for the transportation of HFE proteins to the cell surface.

It is likewise imperative to recollect that HFE is profoundly communicated in intestinal tomb cells yet not so unequivocally in the hepatocytes or villus, in the liver anyway it is communicated in kupffer cells. It appears just as the job of HFE in iron digestion is to detect the controlling sign that animate intestinal cells to build iron assimilation (L. M. Fletcher and J. W. Halliday 2002). Late examines have demonstrated that iron fixation in the sepulcher cells is significant in attempting to decide the measure of iron that is consumed by the villus when the grave cells start to relocate and separate to the villus (L. M. Fletcher and J. W. Halliday 2002).

The C282Y change in HFE quality is expected to HFE protein gathering inside the endoplasmic reticulum and its powerlessness to arrive at the phone surface which hinders transferrin HFE interceded iron take-up. Studies have demonstrated that HFE likely impacts transferrin bound iron section the sepulcher (P.Santos, J.Krieger, A.Pereira 2012). A lessening in iron admission in the tomb can bring about wrong flag for increment in iron retention. When these customized cells enter the villus the development of iron through DMT1 is expanded and progressively iron can know enter the intestinal cell where it would then be able to move all through the basolateral surface.

Components associated with liver Iron poisonous quality and Hepcidin

It’s critical to take note of that an ordinary individual assimilates 1-2mg of iron which is adjusted by proportional misfortune there is no instrument in controlling iron misfortune from the body so it is significant that iron ingestion is deliberately directed. The greater part of the iron utilized all through the body is reused senescent erythrocytes by macrophages which is then come back deep down marrow to be incorporated in erythroid forerunners. The significant stockpiling of iron is in the liver and the reticuloendothelial cells. Iron digestion and ingestion are balanced by the body necessities and reaction to press insufficiency or iron over-burden conditions for instance articulation of duodenal NRAMP2 and SIC40A1 is expanded during iron inadequacy (G.Weiss 2009). While this is by all accounts upregulated in the macrophages and duodenum it is downregulated in the liver which is because of a fundamental iron controller. This ace controller controls iron homeostasis and is a peptide hormone encoded in the liver known as hepcidin which is encoded by the HAMP quality.

Hepcidin is an intense stage protein, the protein applies its administrative impacts on iron homeostasis by official to SIC40A1, this outcomes in debasement, ubiquitinylation and disguise of transporter proteins which diminishes the exportation of iron from cells (G.Weiss 2009). Individuals with HH genetic haemochromatosis produce a diminished measure of the ace controller hepcidin which thus causes an expansion dietary iron retention and develop in tissues. The decrease of hepcidin generation is because of acceptance of SIC40A1 articulation and an expansion of iron exchange from res and gut into the flow (G.Weiss 2009). Individuals with an anomalous iron controller quality are not ready to diminish assimilation of iron notwithstanding an expansion in iron levels in the body and with a decrease of hepcidin, the iron stores of the body increment, the iron that was put away as ferritin at that point starts to store in organs like the liver, heart and pancreases which can cause organ fibrosis, it is discharged as haemosiderin which is harmful to tissue

Biochemical and sub-atomic demonstrative tests

Serum transferrin and transferrin immersion

There are an assortment of symptomatic strategies to decide if a patient has haemochromatosis more often than not they are identified from a normal blood screening, anyway the most well-known test are serum transferrin and transferrin immersion. Transferrin ties iron is expected to move iron in the blood. By estimating transferrin we can increase a rough estimation of iron stores in the body. Typical esteems run between 15-40% about 300ng/L in guys and 200 in females. Qualities showing over-burden are 60% in men and half in ladies, a transferrin immersion more prominent than 62% may demonstrate homozygosity for a change in the HFE quality. Serum ferritin is another technique in diagnosing haemochromatosis, by estimating ferritin we can get a good guess of entire body iron stores. Typical esteems go from 12-150 ng/ml in females and 12-300 ng/ml in guys, anything over 1000 nano grams for every milliliter of blood is unequivocally due to haemochromatosis. Despite the fact that serum ferritin is a delicate test for iron over-burden in innate haemochromatosis it is likewise low explicitness making it raised in an assortment of incendiary conditions, for example, diabetes, liver harm and liquor utilization.

Liver biopsies and Genetic testing

Liver biopsies include the extraction of liver tissue utilizing a needle, the measure of iron in the tissue test is then estimated and afterward contrasted with a typical standard and proof of liver harm. This is estimated infinitesimally and by nuclear assimilation spectrophotometry of the hepatic parenchymal cells. Anyway this strategy comes with dangers, for example, wounding, disease and dying. Another valuable demonstrative strategy is hereditary trying