In your own words, what is morality? What is moral realism? Do you believe in moral realism? Explain why or why not. What is the opposite of moral realism?

Sample Answer

Philosophers around the world have debated the meaning of morality for centuries. However, it is a word too subjective to be either denoted or defined. Aristotle, often referred to as the father of philosophy, advised that one could determine what is moral by examining the mean between two “less desirable” extremes. However, despite the difficulty in coming up with the definition, a concurrence is made by majority that morality is a system or code that we human beings use to differentiate between right and wrong. This system could be derived from a number of factors: Religion, Culture, and upbringing.  This paper exploits the critical understanding of morality and further elucidate on moral realism.

ry, but also as unit, relay or signified. Semiology is perhaps doomed to be assimilated into a trans-linguistics, the materials of which may be myth, narrative, journalism, or on the other hand objects of modernization, in so far as they are spoken. On this note, the Roland Barthes (1964) came up with distinctive and widely acceptable elements of Semiology. They are;
 Language and speech
 Signified and signifier
 Syntagm and systems
 Denotation and connotation
Language and Speech
Barthes (1964) enforced the concepts of language, or the part of the Semiological system which is consented upon by society, and speech, or the individual choice of symbols, to Semiological systems. The application of these concepts can be supplied to the Semiological study of the food system. According to Barthes (1964), someone is free to create his/her own menu, using personal choices in food mixtures, and this will become their speech or message. This is done with the overall national and social structures of the language of food mind. Barthes (1964) then spread on Saussure’s terms, by explaining that language is not really socially determined by the masses, but is sometimes decided by a certain minute group of persons, somewhat changing the correlation of language and speech. Barthes (1964) exact that a Semiological system can importantly exist in which there is language, but little or no speech. In this case, Barthes (1964) was of the believe that a third element called matter, which would provide signification would need to be added to the language/speech system.
Signifier and Signified
The signified was a representation of a concept, while the signifier was used to represent the sound-image of that concept. Barthes (1964) points out that the importance of both the signified and the signifier is the correlation that exists between them; it is within this relationship that sense is arrived at. “… that the words in the field derive their meaning only from their opposition to another (usually in pairs), and that if these oppositions are preserved, the meaning is unambiguous” (Barthes, 1964, p. 38). Out of the correlation, the sign is created. Saussure (1959) indicated the sign to be arbitrary in nature, initially based on the relationship between the signified and signifier. Barthes (1964) explained that the sign cannot be arbitrary forever when Semiological systems are conceived. Instead, Barthes shows that once sign assumes a role or use, it will earn its meaning along the line. The sign can definitely misplace its capricious in nature and become actuated (Barthes, 1964).

Syntagm and System
Barthes (1964) defines the Syntagm as an elongated mixture of signs. Within semantic analyses, this would be something like a sentence, where each is interwined to the other terms within the phrase. The Syntagm is likened to the system, which means other words within the mind, as in the case of the relations between “learning” and “internship” (Barthes, 1964, p. 58). Barthes goes further upon these minds by connecting them Semiologically to different systems, e.g. food. In food system, the systematic level becomes the various bags within a particular level (i.e. types of desserts), whereas the syntagmatic level becomes the menu choices selected for a full meal (Barthes, 1964).