Text and Materials: Whitehead, D.K., Weiss, S.A. & Tappen, R.M.
Essentials of Nursing Leadership and Management. (6th Ed.) ISBN-13: 978-0-
Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA) (6th Ed.).
2009 ISBN: 978-1-4338-0561-5

Read Chapter 14
1. Do you think it is important for nurses to be involved in their professional organizations? Why or why not?
2. What is your vision of nursing’s future? How will you contribute to shaping it?
3. Locate the website of a professional organization related to nursing. State the organization’s mission, membership criteria, and standards of practice.
4. Describe the nurse of the future.
a-What does he or she do?
b-Do you think nursing will become a more powerful force in health care?

Sample Answer


In a perfect, idealistic world, each understudy would become familiar with a similar substance in the very same manner. Educators could show a thing or two once and all understudies would comprehend and gain proficiency with the idea before proceeding onward to the following point of the day. By and by, as we as a whole know quite well, understudies dislike this; despite what might be expected, every understudy has their own preferred method for learning and instructors are looked with the test of showing understudies with a wide scope of capacities. As Van Sciver (2005:534) commented, "Educators are currently managing a degree of scholarly decent variety in their homerooms unfathomable only 10 years prior". In this way, in a solitary study hall, understudies' taking in capacities may extend from above evaluation level to underneath grade level. For instance, in a secondary school class made up of thirty understudies, one will see a variety of understudies' scope of capacities. As far as talking capacities for example, one understudy may impart at a tenderfoot or a basic level, while another conveys a long ways past his/her evaluation level (at an upper-middle of the road, progressed or even capability scale). Besides, understudies will in general have various characters, foundations and learning styles that must be thought about and deliberately cooked for by their instructors. This is the reason, any teacher ought to be a capable specialist of the current learning styles, learning hypotheses and instructing procedures that would prompt a smart choice of the appropriate educating approach. In addition, it is basic for each instructor to for all time stay in contact with the most recent revelations in fields of Psychology and Methodology and task their future movement in order to expand the students' potential.

It is regular information that each learning hypothesis has had (and keeps on having) a significant impact upon the act of language educating and regardless of whether another hypothesis has risen as a response to saw deficiencies or difficulties of the past ones, every one of them assumed a noteworthy job, presenting advancements at a given minute and filling in as a reason for new revelations. As it were, we can't analyze learning hypotheses and encouraging methods and we should esteem the positive angles in every one of them.

By and by, the accompanying lines of this section will be devoted to a progressive hypothesis that activated radical changes into the view of insight and language instructing, in particular the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, proposed in 1983 by the American therapist, Howard Gardner. As I would like to think, this is the very hypothesis that provides food for the interesting character every understudy has and that has responded to practically the entirety of my inquiries with respect to my understudies' conduct in class. (For what reason do a few understudies truly appreciate and perform better working in bunches while others are considerably more profitable when working alone? For what reason do a few students attract pictures their journals while others appear to just need to hear a word or a linguistic structure and they are in a flash equipped for utilizing it by their own? For what reason would i say i was effective with a movement applied on certain understudies while playing out a similar action with another gathering of understudies I was definitely not?)

3.1. The Concept of Intelligence

Knowledge is an unpredictable issue that has consistently prompted a wide scope of opposing proclamations and long-running and furious discussions. There are upwards of 150 meanings of knowledge in the field of Psychology with supporters keeping up its conventional importance and power and rivals testing the standard implications and grasping some progressively complete, increasingly unpredictable, more extensive and much increasingly sober minded points of view.

The principal roundabout records of the expression "knowledge" were enlisted during the Antiquity, when the idea of insight was fairly seen and alluded to as a perfect; hence, the antiquated Greeks esteemed "physical capacity, balanced judgment and upright conduct" (Gardner, 1999:1), while the Romans would in general position 'fearlessness' as the incomparable perfect. By method for differentiate, the Chinese prized various standards, for example, abilities in music, drawing and arrow based weaponry.

It is commonly realized that the descriptor "keen" has consistently strongly affected individuals over the course of the hundreds of years, and the individuals who are alluded to as "astute", are relied upon to have the option to succeed in scholarly life as well as in assignments and circumstances they defy with all through their reality. In this manner, along the hundreds of years, numerous clinicians have endeavored to characterize, gauge and express human scholarly abilities. As a rule, knowledge is characterized as "the general mental capacity associated with ascertaining, thinking, seeing connections and analogies, adapting rapidly, putting away and recovering data, utilizing language easily, arranging, summing up, and changing in accordance with new circumstances." (Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th version, 2006). All the more explicitly, two significant ways to deal with seeing knowledge can be followed: the conventional speculations dependent on the IQ point of view and the hypotheses dependent on Multiple viewpoints.

Knowledge hypotheses dependent on the IQ point of view used to characterize the term as a "static, single build" (Snider 2001:5), that is a unitary and steady characteristic estimating language and rationale through the notable IQ (Intelligence Quotient) test, created by the renowned French therapist Alfred Binet in 1906. The IQ test was later altered (1920-1930) to suit the American culture, being additionally alluded to as the Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Gardner, 1999:12). Moreover, different tests, for example, SAT (Scholastic Aptitude/Assessment Tests) were grown yet they depended on a similar peculiarity point of view that acknowledged insight as a sole limit which was estimated by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests. Despite the fact that every one of these tests just surveyed a thin scope of consistent and phonetic limits, they before long turned into the standard insight instruments of assessment utilized in the U.S.A., however everywhere throughout the world; also, the overall population appears to have grasped this constrained view as per which knowledge is the thing that the knowledge tests referenced above used to gauge. (Kail and Pellegrina, 1985: 158). A genuine guide to delineate the previously mentioned proclamation would be that of Marilyn Vos Savant, the individual holding the world\'s most elevated recorded score on the IQ test (as enrolled by the Guinness Book of World Records). Popular editorialist, writer, speaker and dramatist, Marilyn Vos Savant is frequently depicted as the most shrewd individual on the planet and since 1986 she has been composing a week by week syndicated section entitled \"Ask Marilyn\" for some papers and magazines in the United States wherein she comprehends riddles and answers inquiries from perusers on an assortment of subjects. (Vos Savant 1998). Numerous individuals read her segment and love the coherent and accurate answers she offers to precarious questions. Whatever knowledge may mean, Vos Savant was considered to have a lot of it. In any case, in 1990, subsequent to presuming that IQ tests are not solid enough to assign a solitary world record holder, the Guinness resigned the class "Most noteworthy IQ".

Regardless of the way that gigantic changes in the conceptualization of mind had happened as of late in the fields of Physics, Biology, Neuroscience, Cognitive Science, the impression of insight had remained somewhat unaltered throughout the previous 100 years (Gardner, 2004) .

It was distinctly in 1983 that the acclaimed American analyst cited above, Howard Gardener, effectively figured out how to challenge this familiar way of thinking and upset the conventional speculations of Intelligence dependent on the IQ point of view, making the progress to all the more brave knowledge hypotheses dependent on numerous viewpoints, making in this way, new conditions for the understanding of human insight and raising amazing, significant experiences into the procedure of instruction.

3.2. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences

In light of the downsides without further ado depicted in the initial segment of this section (3.1. The Concept of Intelligence), Howard Garner proposed an a lot more extensive and exact perspective on the term, in particular a "pluralistic perspective on the brain" (Gardner, 2006: 5), that "improved the evaluation of every single human competency" (Campbell, 1991: 12)", representing the various ways individuals think and act. All these are wonderfully coordinated and enlivened in the Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

Howard Gardner initially presented his imaginative hypothesis in 1983 in his first striking book "Tempers". It is in this book Gardner expressed, \"I accept that human psychological fitness is better depicted as far as a lot of capacities, abilities, or mental aptitudes, which I call intelligences\" (1983:6), examining the probability of a few specific insights inside the human personality. All the more explicitly, Gardner proposes that every individual has various aptitudes and capacities in a few subjects, that every individual has a few kinds of insights that are joined in an unexpected way:

"In its solid structure, different insights hypothesis places a little arrangement of human scholarly possibilities, maybe as not many as seven in number, of which all people are competent by uprightness of their participation in the human species." (Gardner, 1983:278).

At first, Gardener recommended the presence of in any event seven essential kinds of insights (verbal-semantic, melodic, legitimate scientific, visual-spatial, real kinaesthetic, relational , intrapersonal) and he later included two more (naturalist and existentialist) in perhaps the most recent book, distributed in 1999: "Knowledge Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st century".