Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation


Prepare a 10-15 slide PowerPoint in which you describe the nursing theory and its conceptual model and demonstrate its application in nursing practice. Include the following:
1. Present an overview of the nursing theory. Provide evidence that demonstrates support for the model's efficacy in nursing practice. Explain how the theory proves the conceptual model.
2. Explain how the nursing theory incorporates the four metaparadigm concepts.
3. Provide three evidence-based examples that demonstrate how the nursing theory supports nursing practice. Provide support and rationale for each.
Refer to the resource, "Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations," located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.

Sample Answer

Presentation

Sjogren's disorder (SS) is a typical foundational immune system illness normally limited in the exocrine organs (predominantly salivary and lachrymal), prompting parching of oral and visual mucosal tissues. In any case, foundational indications can emerge in an exceptional extent of SS people, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) advancement being the most extreme complexity [1]. While mucosa related lymphoid tissue (MALT) predominantly in the salivary organs is the unmistakable histological lymphoma type, among essential SS patients [2 3], progressively forceful subtypes including diffuse huge B-cell (DLBC) lymphomas can likewise happen [3 4].

Lymphomagenesis in the setting of autoimmunity is viewed as a multifactorial procedure, not so much explained at this point. Hereditary distortions, including chromosomal translocations [5], change of the tumor silencer quality p53 [6] and polymorphisms of particles with administrative job in both inborn and versatile safe initiation pathways [7 8] have been embroiled in the pathogenesis of SS related lymphoma. In addition, as indicated by past examinations, clinical highlights at introduction, for example, determined salivary organ broadening (SGE) [9] and obvious purpura [9 10], lab variations from the norm, similar to lymphopenia, monoclonal sort II cryoglobulinemia and hypocomplementemia [9-11], just as extraordinary lymphocytic penetrations [12] and germinal focuses arrangement [13], in minor salivary organ (MSG) biopsies, have been distinguished as antagonistic indicators for NHL improvement. Thus, at their first assessment, SS patients can be arranged into particular subsets with various likelihood for lymphoma improvement.

The point of the ebb and flow study was to make a prescient device in clinical practice for SS-related NHL improvement, based on clinical, hematological, serological and histopathological highlights, watched right on time at ailment analysis with the objective of early helpful intercession to capture the movement of favorable to threatening lymphoproliferation.

Techniques

Study companion

Restorative records of 381 essential SS patients (SS) without and 92 SS patients with attending NHL (SS NHL), satisfying the changed European/American International grouping criteria for SS [14] and followed up at the Department of Pathophysiology, University of Athens, in a private practice (HMM), and the Rheumatology Department of General Hospital "G. Gennimatas", were reflectively assessed. Patients with SS auxiliary to other fundamental immune system illnesses were rejected. 83.7% of the whole understanding gathering (both SS and SS NHL) had experienced MSG biopsy (63.9% had positive MSG, characterized as center score ≥ 1) and 92.6% were assessed for hostile to Ro/SSA or/and against La/SSB status (74.4% were hostile to Ro/SSA or/and against La/SSB positive). Among 92 SS NHL patients, 73 had MALT and 19 non-MALT lymphoma. The last included 12 DLBC lymphoma, 4 nodal peripheral zone lymphoma (NMZL), 2 little lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) and 1 T-cell lymphoma.

Statistic, clinical and research center assessment

Statistic, clinical and research center information, at the hour of SS analysis were gathered through a broad clinical outline survey. Data with respect to the nearness of glandular indications, for example, oral, visual, skin and upper respiratory tract dryness, SGE, just as visual (unusual Schirmer's test ≤ 5mm/5min and visual color score≥4) and oral (unstimulated salivary stream ≤ 1.5 ml/15 min) signs was acquired. Foundational highlights, for example, musculoskeletal uneasiness, including myalgias, arthralgias and joint inflammation, Raynaud's wonder, unmistakable purpura, fringe sensory system (PNS) contribution dependent on electrophysiological contemplates, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and histologically demonstrated interstitial renal illness, glomerulonephritis, immune system hepatitis or essential biliary cirrhosis were recorded. In the SS NHL gathering, the histological subtype of lymphoma was likewise archived.

Research center information included hematological highlights, for example, leukocyte and platelet number and hemoglobulin (Hb) levels, just as serological attributes, for example, provocative markers [hypergammaglobulinemia and monoclonal gammopathy], autoantibodies [antinuclear antibodies (ANA), hostile to Ro/SSA, against La/SSB antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), against mitochondrial antibodies (AMA), hostile to thyroid antibodies], cryoglobulins, C3 and C4 supplement protein levels. Leukopenia was characterized as white platelets (WBC) number < 4000/μl, lymphocytopenia as lymphocytes number < 1000/μl, thrombocytopenia as platelets number < 250000/μl, iron deficiency as Hb levels < 12g/dl, C3 and C4 hypocomplementemia as levels < 90mg/dl and 20mg/dl separately and RF energy as levels > 20 IU/ml .

At the degree of MSG tissue, the degree of lymphocytic invasion, assessed utilizing Tarpley and center scores [14], germinal focus development and the nearness of monoclonality (as recently portrayed [15]) was additionally recorded. For consistent factors, for example, Tarpley and center scores the cut-off level picked was their middle qualities.

Measurable examination

Correlation of subjective and quantitative highlights between SS patients with and without NHL was performed with Fisher's precise/Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney tests separately utilizing SPSS programming 21.0. Information examination was performed by utilizing univariate and multivariate calculated relapse models. We previously ordered indicators for lymphoma advancement into three significant classes: clinical, research facility and histopathological. We next ran three separate multivariate models for every classification including those parameters saw as critical in univariate investigation. Last, we built a last model, including the autonomous indicators saw as critical in the three separate models (Fig.1). A p-esteem under 0.05 and 0.1, for univariate and multivariate investigation individually, was considered factually critical. The last rundown of autonomous indicators - recognized in the last advance was utilized to figure the hazard for NHL as indicated by the condition:

Hazard = [exp (β0 + βl × xli + . . . + βp × xpi)]/1 + [exp (β0 + βl × xli + . . . + βp × xpi)]

In this condition β0 is the consistent of our model, β1 to βp are the relapse coefficients of the free highlights, while xli to xpi are the qualities comparing to the autonomous hazard factors for a specific patient. For the exhibition assessment of our prescient model, ROC (recipient working trademark) bends were shaped and the region under the bend (AUC) was determined. Paired strategic relapse was actualized to compute the anticipated likelihood of creating SS related NHL, within the sight of a blend of hazard factors, by including them continuously, one to the next, as indicated by their chances proportion (starting from higher to lower).

RESULTS

Statistic information

Statistic information for the SS and SS NHL bunches are appeared in Τable 1. The mean age at sickness conclusion of the SS and SS NHL accomplice was 51.6±13.2 and 50.3±13.4 separately, while the female to male proportion was 17:1 and 14:1 individually. The comparing ages for the SS MALT and non-MALT bunches were 49.9±12.7 and 52.1±16.2, individually. No huge contrasts between bunches were distinguished.

Clinical, hematological, serological and histopathological includes in SS and SS NHL gatherings

The pervasiveness of clinical appearances at infection beginning in SS patients with and without NHL is exhibited in Table 2 (Univariate examination). The two gatherings had comparative paces of side effects identified with exocrine brokenness (oral, visual, skin and upper respiratory framework dryness), of musculoskeletal uneasiness, including joint pain, just as renal and liver inclusion. In opposite, contrasted with the SS gathering, SS NHL patients displayed expanded recurrence of Raynaud's wonder (37.0% versus 23.9%, p=.01), SGE (64.1% versus 21.5%, p<.001), substantial purpura (42.4% versus 12.1%, p<.001), lymphadenopathy (44.6% versus 10.2%, p<.001), splenomegaly (8.7% versus 1.1%, p<.001) and PNS association (8.7% versus 2.4%, p=.01). Furthermore SS NHL event was related with lymphopenia (28.3% versus 11.6%, p<.001), iron deficiency (46.7% versus 23.9%, p<.001), RF (85.4% versus 52.4%, p<.001) and against Ro/SSA or/and hostile to La/SSB inspiration (91.2% versus 70.0%, p<.001), monoclonal gammopathy (23.3% versus 5.0%, p<.001), just as cryoglobulinemia (32.1% versus 6.5%, p<.001) and low C4 supplement levels (80.9% versus 48.1%, p<.001) (Table 2). As to the histopathological includes on the underlying indicative salivary organ biopsy, a MSG center score more than 1.6 (71.4% versus 42.0%, p<.001), a Tarpley score ≥ 3 (68.5% versus 38.5%, p<.001), just as the nearness of monoclonality in MSG tissues (50.0% versus 10.7%, p=.003) have been altogether found to happen all the more as often as possible in SS NHL contrasted with the SS gathering (Univariate examination, Table 3).

Free hazard factors for NHL advancement

We next wished to distinguish free indicators for NHL advancement in the setting of SS by multivariate investigation (see factual strategies) (Fig.1). As appeared in Table 4, among clinical highlights, SGE, lymphadenopathy, discernable purpura, PNS contribution and Raynaud's marvel were seen as autonomously connected with NHL improvement [OR (95%CI): 5.27 (3.07-9.04), 4.45 (2.45-8.11), 3.31 (1.79-6.08), 3.02 (0.87-10.49) and 1.64 (0.92-2.92) respectively]. Among serological discoveries, RF, hostile to Ro/SSA or/and against La/SSB inspiration, monoclonal gammopathy, C4 hypocomplementemia and cryoglobulinemia were seen to be related with NHL advancement [OR (95%CI): 3.36 (1.54-7.34), 7.50 (2.21-25.52), 4.76 (1.63-13.92), 2.94 (1.46-5.91), 2.71 (1.16-6.32), respectively]. At last, among histopathological highlights, just Tarpley score in the MSG biopsy ≥ 3 stayed as autonomous indicator of SS NHL event [OR (95%CI): 5.84 (2.73-12.47)].