Past consideration


Discuss why past consideration cannot be consideration for a promise under Contract Law. Discuss fully. Please remember to list your references.

Sample Answer

According to Lord Dunedin in Dunlop v Selfridge (1915), consideration is “an act or forbearance of one party, or the promise thereof, is the price for which the promise of the other is bought, and the promise thus given for value is enforceable”. Thus, consideration may be viewed as a sort of bargain, or price which one party pays to buy the promise or act of the other. The focus of this essay will be to highlight whether the consideration of the past agreement between two parties should hold water under contract law or not. As such a critical analysis will be given on the same.

 


Thyroid most cancers is a relatively uncommon cancer representing less than 1% of all malignancies in the United Kingdom (UK) [1] and 3.1% of all new malignancies in the United States (US) [2]. Thyroid cancer is commonly asymptomatic and is frequently located by the way via imaging research completed for any other reason, or while sufferers present with a large palpable nodule within the neck [3]. However, the incidence of thyroid most cancers is growing global-huge [4], in element due to improved diagnostic and detection strategies [5]. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) accounts for approximately 94% of thyroid cancers [6, 7]. DTC is a particular sort of thyroid cancer made up of various subtypes which include papillary carcinoma (PTC), follicular carcinoma (FTC) and Hürthle cellular carcinoma. PTC is the most common kind of DTC, accounting for about 83% [7] to 86% [8] of all cases. FTC accounts for approximately 10% [8] to thirteen% [7], and Hürthle mobile carcinoma debts for about 3% [7] to 4% [8], of all cases. Treatment of DTC usually includes surgical operation to get rid of all or a part of the thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) accompanied via lifelong use of thyroxine for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression [9-12]. Following initial surgery, it is estimated that between 5% and 20% of sufferers with DTC increase local or nearby recurrences and among 10% and 15% of sufferers with DTC expand distant metastases [9, 11]. These sufferers are commonly treated with radioactive iodine. For many sufferers, remedy with radioactive iodine is powerful. Approximately 33% of sufferers with advanced DTC may be cured with the aid of treatment with radioactive iodine and plenty of others acquire lengthy-term disorder stabilization [13]. The 10-year survival rate for sufferers with distant metastases that respond to radioactive iodine treatment has been mentioned to be 92% [14]. However, a few sufferers come to be not able to safely tolerate frequent doses of radioactive iodine and, for some others, their disease turns into proof against remedy. These sufferers are taken into consideration to have radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid most cancers (RR-DTC). Estimates of the share of sufferers who grow to be refractory range, perhaps reflecting the lack of a specific consensus definition of RR-DTC [15], however generally lie in the range of five% to fifteen% of human beings with DTC [6, 8, 14, 16-18]. For patients with RR-DTC, remedy alternatives were restrained. Chemotherapy is hardly ever or in no way recommended by means of the authors of medical suggestions [9-12] and as a result, for lots patients, excellent supportive care (BSC) has been the handiest treatment option. However, the authors of published medical pointers have cited the promise of targeted treatments which includes tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Lenvatinib is the maximum current TKI to be certified for treating RR-DTC, receiving a licence within the US in February 2015 [19] and in the European Union (EU) in May 2015 [20]. The most effective different certified TKI is sorafenib, which turned into licensed for the remedy of RR-DTC inside the US in November 2013 [21] and in the EU in January 2015 [22]. The authors of america National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines now propose that lenvatinib and sorafenib ought to be considered for treating modern and/or symptomatic RR-DTC [12]. The authors, however, warning towards their use for sufferers with strong or slowly progressive indolent disease [12]. The authors of the American Thyroid Association (ATA) hints caution that sufferers who're applicants for TKI remedy “should be very well advised at the ability risks and blessings of this remedy in addition to alternative healing procedures inclusive of quality supportive care” [9]. Lenvatinib and sorafenib are to be had for treating RR-DTC in numerous nations. However, the quantity to which they're to be had to sufferers varies. For example, lenvatinib and sorafenib are presently to be had thru the National Health Service (NHS) in Scotland [23, 24] but are best available for sufferers in special situations inside the NHS in England. Before lenvatinib and sorafenib may be routinely used inside the NHS in England, a high-quality advice is needed from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Thus, we, the Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG), were commissioned, in our potential as an independent Assessment Group, to provide an impartial review of the clinical and value effectiveness evidence as part of a a couple of technology appraisal (MTA). In this paper, we record our systematic evaluate of the scientific effectiveness proof for lenvatinib and sorafenib and speak how the evidence has impacted on guidelines for scientific exercise. Methods In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, our systematic assessment protocol became registered with PROSPERO, the international potential register of systematic reviews (registration variety CRD42017055516). The evaluate become performed according with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) posted steering on undertaking systematic evaluations in healthcare [25] and the assessment is stated according with PRISMA suggestions [26]. Search strategies for identification of studies On 10 January 2017, 4 digital databases (Embase (Ovid), MEDLINE (Ovid), PubMed and the Cochrane Library) were looked for research posted considering that 1 January 1999. On sixteen May 2017, the clinicaltrials.Gov website (a provider of the US National Institutes of Health), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and the European Union Clinical Trials Register, have been looked for records on research in development. To become aware of relevant studies, a combination of index phrases for the ailment (e.G. Thyroid neoplasms) and free textual content words (e.G. Lenvatinib or Lenvima or E7080 or Sorafenib or Nexavar or bay439006) were employed. The database searches have been limited to human research and English language research. No other seek regulations have been implemented. The search strategies employed are furnished in Online Resource 1. Evidence submissions from the sponsors of lenvatinib [27] and sorafenib [28] that were submitted to NICE as part of the MTA technique had been considered for inclusion in our overview. The lists of references from the business enterprise submissions and all applicable studies identified thru the literature searches had been move-checked to pick out any papers not recognized via the electronic searches.