Planning and Implementing Change

Once an organization determines the optimal change strategy, it must be implemented in the organization. At this point, many influences can affect its ultimate success, including the organization’s culture, leadership abilities, and employee behavior. Therefore, a detailed and comprehensive change implementation plan should be created to assess these factors and facilitate the success of the plan.
Present the basic steps/components of an action plan an organization within KSA should follow when implementing its change management strategy. Additionally, discuss the importance of a contingency plan and indicate which components are typically addressed in a contingency plan.
Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories, which require supporting citations along with two scholarly peer-reviewed references in supporting your answer. Keep in mind that these scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search specific to scholarly references.

Sample Answer

Tight intersections (TJs) are impeding intersections which go about as hindrances that control paracellular penetrability and manage trans-epithelial water and solute development. The structures are made out of indispensable transmembrane proteins that connection nearby cells, with an impact on cell-cell attachment and epithelial penetrability. It likewise fills in as a limit between the apical and basolateral plasma film areas to make the polarization of endothelial and epithelial cells. These intersections are involved arrangements of consistent systems administration strands in the ostensibly confronting cytoplasmic pamphlet, with reciprocal scores in the internally confronting extra cytoplasmic handout.

Figure 1: Tight intersection area between the epithelial cells and paracellular transport.

(Singh, Sharma, and Dhawan, 2010)


Claudin in ovarian malignant growth Claudin proteins comprises of 24 transmembrane proteins displaying unmistakable tissue and are the primary segment of tight intersections that capacity as specific boundaries. Claudins are communicated in both epithelial and endothelial cells in which they structure a complex with impeding (Leech A.O et al 2015). Clauidns assume significant jobs in shaping and capacity of the tight intersection in ordinary epithelial and endothelial cells.

Claudins structure the foundation of TJs and interrelate with one another in homotypic and heterotypic style. There are two transmembrane areas N-ends and C-ends with the two parts of the bargains situated in the cytoplasm. This arrangement brings about the development of two extracellular parts. The C-terminal locale contains a PDZ-space restricting theme that can interface with PDZ-area containing proteins, for example, ZO proteins (Morin, 2007).

Figure 2: The structure of claudin proteins and the extracellular circles. The C-terminal is PDZ restricting space. (Morin, 2007)

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian malignancy is a kind of disease that starts in tissues of ovaries. The ovaries are the female regenerative organs which produce eggs (ova) just as female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian malignant growth is the fourth driving reason for disease among ladies in Europe and United States, there are a larger number of passings than in some other malignant growth because of challenges in finding and treatment. In UK ovarian malignant growth is the fifth most normal disease in ladies, around 7000 cases were recorded in 2012. As per (Globocan 2012) around 239000 ladies were to have been determined to have ovarian disease in 2012, and is the eighth most regular reason for malignancy passing in ladies around the world.

The ovaries are comprised of three primary sorts of cells and each kind of cell can form into an alternate sort of tumor, the three kinds of ovarian diseases (tumors); epithelial ovarian malignant growth, Germ cell ovarian disease and stromal ovarian malignancy.

• Epithelial ovarian malignant growth is the most successive type of ovarian disease it is gotten from cells on the outside of the ovary.

• Germ cell ovarian malignancy are considerably less normal and influences youngsters or high school young ladies. It is gotten from the egg creating cells inside the body of the ovary.

• Stromal cell ovarian malignancy begins in the cells that hold the ovaries together and produce female hormones.

Page 2: Molecular component of Ovarian Cancer

Major Ovarian disease flagging pathways are engaged with ovarian malignancy cell advancement. The threatening components and change of ovary cells to epithelial ovarian malignant growth are a way to recognize specific ovarian disease biomarkers.

The greater part of these qualities are connected to cell flagging pathways in which they assume a fundamental job in malignancy cell development, intrusion, endurance and metastasis. The flagging pathways which are related with ovarian malignant growth are;

• Nuclear factor kappa initiated B cells (NF-kB)

• Activator of translation 3 (Jak-STAT 3)

• Mitogen actuated protein kinase (MAPK)

• Proto oncogene tyrosine protein kinase Src

• ErbB actuation, the lysophosphatidic corrosive (LPA)

• Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)

• Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)

• Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)

(Longuespée et al., 2012).

The entirety of the above flagging pathways happen in sub-atomic instrument of ovarian malignancy and relate with one another anyway EGFR transformations are uncommon and not essentially overexpressed. EGFR is an individual from ErbB group of receptor tyrosine kinase which incorporates HER 2, Erb3 and Erb4.

– Epidermal development factor flagging has been exhibited to regulate the declaration of the claudins in different cell types. In late investigation component of the TJ protein guideline in ovarian malignant growths was investigated by treating both ovarian mucinous and serous cystadenocarcinoma cell lines with EGF.

– It's initiated by different ligands, for example, EGF and TGF and assumes job in improving and repressing tumor endurance.

– Following official of its ligand EGFR is initiated and EGFR tyrosine action phosphorylates tyrosine deposits on the EGFR and different proteins causing their actuation and causing an arrangement of downstream effectors which lead to expanded cell development.

– This than prompts enactment of different intercellular flagging pathways, for example, (MAPK) and (PI3K) AKT pathways, which are associated with endurance and cell multiplication (Dutta et al., 2010).

– EGF found to downregulate claudin 3 in mucinous ovarian carcinoma cell lines and claudin 4 in ovarian serous cystadenocarinoma by inciting the debasement of these proteins with likewise changes in the structure and capacity of tight intersection by means of the MEK/ERK or P13K/AKT flagging pathway (Ogawa et al., 2012).

Claudin overexpression of claudin proteins in ovarian malignant growth seems, by all accounts, to be the most conspicuous in epithelial tumors because of the sex string and stromal tumors which don't express the proteins at noteworthy levels.

In late examination demonstrated that the basic atomic instruments associated with ovarian disease, a two pathway model for ovarian tumorigenesis with Type 1 pathway engaged with the improvement of poor quality tumors and type 2 pathways in the age of genuine high evaluation tumors (Li et al., 2009).

The watched sub-atomic highlights in ovarian malignant growth, regularly overexpress of a few individuals from the claudin group of tight intersection proteins. It has been recommended that claudin 3 and claudin 4 are generally raised in ovarian malignancy. In different tumors certain caludins to have been as prognostic markers and in ovarian malignant growth claudin 3 and 7, levels are conversely interrelated with endurance (Li et al., 2009).

The instrument of the expanded Claudin 3 and Claudin4 articulation in ovarian malignant growth is believed to be the consequence of epigenetic changes of the Claudin advertiser locales in the disease cells which in coming about expanded cell endurance, intrusion and motility (English and Santin, 2013).

In the examination microarray investigation have been utilized so as to distinguish the sub-atomic changes that happen in claudin 4 overexpressing cells, as cell communicating claudin 4 show raised angiogenesis properties as estimated by both in vitro and vivo measures.

Claudin quality CLDN16 an individual from the claudin family, CLDN16 has been proposed to be raised in ovarian disease. It has significant impact in the upkeep of cell extremity, cell course of action, grip, paracellular transport and ionic porousness of different epithelial. (English and Santin, 2013)

Table 1: Claudin articulation in gynaecologic malignant growth

Step by step instructions to recognize Claudin in ovarian malignancy

Looks into on claudin in ovarian malignant growth has been included both on a fundamental and clinical level. In essential research including cell line or creature trials, for example,

– Detection of articulation numerous claudins

– Exploring the component of quality articulation

Sequential examination of Gene Expression (SAGE) is systems used to break down ovarian disease quality articulation and CLDN3/CLDN4 found for the most part up controlled in the ovarian malignant growth.

In a few examinations CLDN7 have been seen that overexpress in ovarian malignant growth anyway this change is less steady than what is recognized for CLDN3 and CLDN4. (Morin, 2007)