Power and politics

Answer the following questions about leadership theories. Your paper should be 1 to 1.5 pages, 12-point, double spaced, 1-inch margins.
1. What are the bases of power and which bases of power are more effective considering leadership?
2. What is the relationship between power and dependence? What creates dependence?
3. Compare the contrast the power tactics. Which ones are more effective in upward vs downward vs lateral influence? Give examples.
4. Explain the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory and give examples.
5. Summarize the individual and organizational factors that influence organizational politics.

Sample Answer

Throughout the history of human existence, it is has been proven that there is need for a provider of guidance and power that can influence people’s attitude, belief and decision and leads them towards a given direction. This is found in most aspects of society ranging from business to politics and to other community- oriented organization. Many researchers have come forth to explain what we really mean by the term leadership and for this reason we have a plethora of them. It is in the interest of this paper to examine the underlying structures of leadership and the intriguing terrains that are accompanied by it like power and politics just to mention


Presentation

Since the nineteenth century, cell passing has been valued however until the twentieth century no test examination had occurred. 1 It was later proposed that modified cell demise (PCD) has been an imperative instrument in the endurance of multicellular organisms.2 Cell passing is a continuous procedure in the human body when birth. In people, both physiological and obsessive PCD jump out at look after homeostasis. It assumes a significant job in shielding the body from contaminations to infections, for example, malignancy. Cell demise is regularly depicted as a twofold edged sword with respect to its valuable and unsafe attributes. Uncontrolled cell passing has been a clarification for some neurodegenerative illnesses, for example, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Conversely restraint of cell passing has regularly been the reason for creating disease. This exposition will plot in addition to inspect the systems of the diverse cell passings which happen in the body when birth, talking about the pathway of infections brought about by both extreme and lacking cell demise.

Cell demise before birth

PCD is a significant component in the arrangement of appendages during the embryonic improvement time frame. Apoptosis is answerable for the passing of additional phones which are delivered to guarantee that there is no lack during organ and appendage improvement. The cells which make up the additional tissues are separated in the interdigital districts. This is constrained by flagging proteins. Hindrance of moving development components could prompt inconsistencies in the appendage improvement and is the clarification for conditions alluded to as syndactyly and polydactyly.3 Polydactyly (see figure 1) appendage deformity rises up out of the absence of apoptosis and arrangement of additional fingers or toes during embryogenesis.3 On the other hand bony syndactyly is where there is over the top cell passing bringing about disappointment of the computerized beams to isolate thus prompting the arrangement of joined finger or toes (see figure 2) 3. PCD is significant in the improvement of appendages in incipient organisms yet it is fundamental that apoptosis is controlled to profit the body as opposed to adding to ailment. This procedure proceeds in the body after birth.

Sorts of Cell Death

Corruption is an obsessive cell passing which pursues an alternate instrument from the PCD (which has advanced to profit the body). Consequently it is depicted as an aloof and non-innate PCD.6 This demise component is particular from the PCD in a few different ways; from the basic highlights (necrotic cells are broadened in contrast with the typical apoptotic cells) the planning of the pathways (happens over a time of a few hours).7 There are a wide range of conditions which can start cell passing by rot. One trigger is the adjustment in the penetrability of the particle diverts in the cell surface layer. This prompts the enactment of lysosome crack therefore bringing about DNA fracture and thusly cell demise. It has been proposed that necrotic cell passing is a significant segment in the harm to the sensory system during neurodegeneration.8 Necrosis is a type of cell demise which as often as possible adds to sickness in the human body.

In examination apoptosis is a developmental component for the particular evacuation of harmed, maturing and superfluous cells in the body hence this complex PCD framework has various mechanisms.9 This exposition will take a gander at the mitochondrial intervened pathway as the mitochondria is fundamental to the endurance of multicellular creatures. The dynamic focal job of mitochondria in PCD had not been apparent until the mid 1990s.1 They are believed to be the essential organelles in directing the apoptotic pathways by reacting to pressure boosts including various types of radiation, ecological variables, qualities and DNA harm. These sign to the mitochondria are deciphered by various cytosolic or intraorganellar particles which in the long run offer ascent to alterations in the external mitochondrial membrane.1 One of these modifications could be change in the penetrability of the film to proteins which would some way or another be available between the internal and the external mitochondrial membrane.10 These proteins get away from the mitochondria and start apoptosis by enacting caspase-3. 1 This is portrayed as the natural pathway (see figure3)1. The mitochondria can likewise pursue the outward pathway which is started by death ligands (see figure3)1. Here death ligands produce signals which can either legitimately draw in the mitochondria through a progression of occasions initiating the effector (caspase-3) or advance the cleavage of non-caspase substrates invigorating changes in the external mitochondrial layer. This causes the arrival of apoptogenic factors.1 Apoptosis additionally has physiological components and isn't workable for the cell to complete these it will start type II PCD (autophagy) as another option .1 Overall necrotic and apoptotic cell passings are moderately extraordinary (see figure 3).9

Autophagy is another type of PCD which is initiated by pressure circumstances. In this cell demise pathway autophagosomes convey intercellular proteins and organelles to lysosomes for destruction.6 One of the basic pressure boosts which can incite autophagy is oxidative pressure which brings about myocardial dead tissue. Here autophagy isn't a supporter of ischaemic heart infections yet is a versatile reaction showing its job in helping wellbeing .6 Although autophagy is seen as an endurance helping instrument, much the same as apoptosis unnecessary autophagy prompts unfortunate cell demise. It very well may be incited by both extracellular and intercellular signals.6 Due to its pressure upgrades reaction, delayed introduction to the sign will bring about the improvement of maladies. One of the normal parts of illnesses brought about by over the top cell demise are the neurodegenerative maladies.

Figure 3. The Mitochondrial Death Pathway; Schematic portrayal contrasting parts of the characteristic and extraneous apoptotic pathways in C.elegans and warm blooded animals.

Neurodegenerative illnesses

Neurodegeneration is the focal instrument causing sickness in the sensory system answerable for a scope of illnesses from a little stroke to constant Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.8 Continued investigation into cell suicide has uncovered extraordinarily on the inceptions of neurodegenerative infections recommending the prevalent reason as over the top PCD; a consequence of transformations in the administrative quality articulations bringing about the degeneration of sound cells 1. Tedious perceptions of the gathering of autolysosomes during autophagy in the improvement of Alzheimer's has scrutinized the association of autophagy in such senarios.8 Thus autophagy has been unnecessarily prompted in cells to recognize autolysosomal development and substrate proteolysis as the ailment inception steps. This deformity causes a gathering of organelles and transport disappointment offering ascend to indications, for example, memory slips, trouble in performing spatial assignments and so on. Comparable perceptions have been seen in other neurodegenerative diseases.11

Parkinson's is a neurodegenerative development issue with normal manifestations, for example, tremor, sluggish development and rigidity.12 Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's has been involved with the degeneration of the mitochondria via autophagy. The defensive pathway liable for resistance against mitochondrial harm and brokenness is disturbed consequently bringing about the aggregation of protein edifices which start miatophagy.11 There are additionally ramifications of oxidative pressure and particular dopamine neurone degeneration.11 Excess dopamine can cause oxidative harm starting the instrument for cell demise. Hyperactivity of cell passing systems achieve these degenerative maladies; anyway a few ailments are started by lacking cell demise.

Inadequate cell demise

Malignancies are portrayed by their unregulated development and spread of cells all through the body.13 In typical cells translation factors control cell demise and development promotion.14A change in the PCD guideline quality outcomes in protection from various cell passing instruments with uncontrolled cell cycle in this manner a tumor structures utilizing the supplements which are accessible for the development of solid cells.15 16 Oncogenic change anyway isn't simply escape from apoptosis, it is the harmony among mitosis and apoptosis that is basic. Strangely districts in oncogenes which increment weakness to apoptosis are like those which advance proliferation.17 Thus the job of dynamic p-53 in apoptosis is significant as expanded p-53 is required to trigger cell demise and cells regularly express low levels.17 Consequently there is deficient cell passing bringing about the arrangement of a tumor.

Restorative ramifications

The crucial job of cell demise in wellbeing and sickness talked about in the exposition and a lot more have advanced investigation into restoring these illnesses by controlling PCD. Analyses have watched the effect of repressing cell passing with apoptosis inhibitors. 4'Methoxyflavore a neuroprotective operator which hinders neuronal cell demise is a medication with the possibility to oversee neurodegenerative diseases.18 Researchers have watched the effect of medications, for example, Nilotinib which can help the capacity of lysosomes by helping the transportation of the harmed organelles and gathered proteins as potential floor covering for Parkinson's.19 On the other hand, the remedial capability of cell passing in malignant growth has inspected prompting cell demise in disease cells through different pathways. Focusing on mitochondria to initiate PCD just as focusing on apoptosis inhibitors engaged with the advancement of malignancy have been taken a gander at as significant remedial strategies.1 Arsenic trioxide (ATO) a chemotherapy tranquilize utilized in the treatment of intense promyelocytic leukemia is viable in accelerating demise of leukemic cells.20 Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is a protein which incites necrotic cell passing of tumor cells and is likewise one of the current methods for treating cancer.21 Research h