Presentation on measles and rubella

The following components are required to be addressed in the presentation:
1. introduction and Etiology: what causes the disease and description of the causative agent.
2. Pathogenesis: brief description of the pathogenicity and virulence factors of the infectious agent (how does it cause disease).
3. Disease description: organs that are affected and on how they are affected, common signs and symptoms, stages and development of disease(incubation period, how disease occurs), prognosis, significant/common complications, what it is like live with the disease, ect..
4. Transmission: describe how it spreads and how contagious it is
5. Treatments: most common course of action
6. Prevention: common ways or methods to prevent transmission and infection, availability of vaccine, etc. Must have graph/visuals

Sample Answer



Restorative mediation Programs are worked to guarantee open wellbeing and the intercessions are intended for the guilty parties in a way that encourage their recovery and fruitful reintegration into the general public. Numerous concentrates saw that reformatory measures didn't demonstrate to be successful in diminishing recidivism where securing up guilty parties a jail had brought about more cost as well as not exactly compelling as the exploited people eventually come back to the general public with numerous issues and requirements for administrations. Along these lines there is a distinction between restorative intercession and discipline as the previous attempts to alter the guilty party conduct through treatment and outside controls. National Institute of Correction (NIC) has discussed eight standards of successful intercession. They are-

• Assessing the hazard or need levels and mediating with the assistance of actuarial instrument device

• Using inspirational systems to change conduct of the guilty parties

• Targeting and illuminating the necessities through acknowledgment of individual contrasts and creating sufficient program for the wrongdoers

• Engage all around prepared staff for psychological conduct methodologies and different exercises

• Increasing the proportion of encouraging feedback

• Engage effectively in star social help for wrongdoers

• Maintain a precise and point by point documentation of the cases

• Providing input to keep up trustworthiness and improve results

Latessa (1998) points out that despite the fact that open help restoration they likewise need open security and that successful remedial mediation meets the greater part of the standards of compelling intercession. In some cases it is seen that the restorative mediation works better with high-hazard wrongdoers instead of okay guilty parties (Christopher and Latessa 2004). Money saving advantage examination approach has regularly been received to comprehend the effectiveness of the remedial mediation programs. A program is viewed as fruitful or powerful if its advantages exceed the expenses. In this manner the cost viability of the restorative intercessions program will be a decrease of recidivism and smooth reemergence of guilty parties into the general public. Creating models for CBA of intercessions won't be simple and with the assistance of written works this paper will endeavor to manufacture a money saving advantage examination system for restorative mediation program.


Assessing the expense and advantages of remedial avoidance program has been a troublesome as it includes a great deal of emotional criteria. avoidance programs more often than make an effort not to gauge the cost and advantage regarding the wrongdoing rate inside the general public which is restricted here and there as the sentiment of frailty frequently goes up or stays stale and doesn't get checked on occasion. Remedial mediation becomes critical when the situational or adolescent aversion programs are not compelling (Chisolm). Despite the fact that very little work has been done on the money saving advantage investigation of network based intercession, it's a significant region of concentrate as it targets improving social capital so as to forestall exploitation, frailty and culpable conduct through network activities so as to manage neighborhood issues. Guilty party treatment is a significant piece of the avoidance projects and it centers around essential training, business abilities and modification procedures. Welsh and Farrington (2000) did a broad study on the cost and advantage of restorative mediations. As indicated by them, utilizing an advantage cost proportion instead of net worth has demonstrated to be progressively successful as it gives a solitary proportion of advantage acquired from one-dollar venture and furthermore controls for various time of a program. The choice of point of view, for example open or society, to gauge the money saving advantage of a program is significant when it's supported by open cash. Anyway the examinations discarded the immaterial expenses to the guilty parties because of the trouble in measuring them. Fass and Pi (2002) recommended that substantial expenses acquired by the equity framework exceed the advantages yet in addition specifies that the expenses and advantages gauge are "not finished enough to give complete answer". Out of pocket costs like property harm and restorative expenses were determined as the financial expense in the program. So as to accomplish wanted outcomes exhaustive evaluations of assets and relative costs should be included (Kuklinski, 2015). In this manner the money related expense to unfortunate casualties can be classified into two kinds which are – Direct out of pocket consumption including therapeutic cost, property misfortune, loss of wages and so on and aberrant cost, for example, torment, enduring, exploitation and so forth. Dominant part of the investigations concentrated on unmistakable expenses as opposed to intangibles costs because of the nonappearance of evaluations to quantify them. Because of restricted assets the evaluations on cost of staffing, organization, office cost, quality affirmation and so on are acquired from state offices and program designers. The Willingness to pay is utilized to get the assessments of estimation of measurable life. As for the unfortunate casualty costs, the substantial expenses are effectively evaluated yet issue lies with the elusive viewpoint, which can be assessed utilizing different methodologies. Exploitation can be determined by utilizing cost of ailment approach estimating therapeutic expenses and lost winning and along these lines can catch the expense of injured individual. The expense to society is frequently estimated by utilizing the unexpected worth technique which depends on two methodologies readiness to pay approach which investigates how much individuals are happy to pay to keep away from the harms came about because of wrongdoing and ability to acknowledge approach that measure the eagerness of unfortunate casualties to acknowledge pay for their misfortune or harms. The guilty party cost is assessed by figuring the open door cost of detainment. Various approaches are received by analysts to assess the expenses related with treatment programs where some evaluated the dollar esteem related with an assortment of results where as some investigated a solitary result, for example, imprisonment (McCollister, French, Inciardi et al., 2003). Swaray et al (2005) incorporated the expense of police reaction to bogus cautions and other related expense of wrongdoing utilizing a gross costing way to deal with gauge the mediation costs. Assessments of the pay of the treatment suppliers should be incorporated while figuring the expense of the program. Farrington (2000) audited seven investigations on remedial intercession program and found that a large portion of the expenses were related with direct cost and the overlooked the aberrant or impalpable expenses. A report by Donato, Ron, et al (1999) incorporated the assessments of the yearly immediate expense of individual wrongdoing at $105 billion which included medicinal costs, loss of profit and open programs. Anyway including the impalpable costs like personal satisfaction and agony and enduring expanded the appraisals to $405 billion every year where in the expenses related with torment and enduring and diminished personal satisfaction was assessed to be 20.8 US billion dollars.


Advantages of a program are determined so as to comprehend whether most extreme use of asset is done and its contrasted with the expenses to get that. Therefore we can say that a program is fruitful on the off chance that it accomplishes the net advantage. A qualification additionally should be made among genuine and notional advantages (Welsh and Farrington, 2001). Genuine fiscal benefits are accomplished when program brings about decrease of the use (direct/quantifiable) and notional benefits are regularly found as impact. Expenses and advantages of a program are frequently abstract and they are dissected from the point of view of citizens, the nontax payers/unfortunate casualties and additionally the members. In this way the advantages of remedial mediation can quantify through a decrease in wrongdoing or recidivism and furthermore from an unfortunate casualties perspective, decline in agony and enduring and dread. Advantages can be substantial or immediate and aberrant or immaterial. Direct benefits are immediate consequence of a program, which are additionally somewhat purposeful and anticipated. The circuitous advantages are those that spontaneous and positive results of a program. Along these lines the remedial mediation programs are required to bring about an immediate advantage by lessening recidivism in a network and backhanded advantage of it would be the inclination of wellbeing among the people in question and other network individuals. A large portion of the investigations on money saving advantage examination have called attention to that most significant advantage of the program is decrease in recidivism. Treating the guilty party brings about diminishing their odds of re-insulting inside the general public and that thus brings about hardly any other related advantages, for example, lesser possibility of exploitation and better personal satisfaction. Donato, Ron, et al (1999) incorporated into their rundown of substantial advantages, reserve funds on human services, lawful expense and so forth which are an immediate advantage for the citizens and the people in question. The other nonmonetary benefits as referenced by them incorporate decrease in torment and enduring and dread of exploitation. In an examination on yearly expenses and advantages correlation of probation and network based substance misuse treatment (CBSAT), Downey et al (2012) found that anticipating a solitary capture in the District of Columbia created $72,000 in social advantages, 86% of which was because of counteractive action of exploitation. The branch of revision gets $1400 as advantage from each capture that is counteracted. In this way a treatment can keep the unfortunate casualties from disappearing from work and spare the out of pocket therapeutic expenses and costs because of loss of property.

Successful treatment program can bring about decrease in the cost of criminal equity that is borne by the citizens. To add to that, because of treatment, the guilty parties are regularly ready to return to have an ordinary existence and gain cash. This thus helps the general public as their monetary investment yields charge income. A decrease in charge additionally occurs as the injured individual related therapeutic expenses goes down alongside protection claims.