Project management

Elaborate the 5 phases in project management. paper should be brief and straight to the point.

Sample Answer

Organizations big and small have a lot of constituting elements that are structurally different and specialized to perform a given task. These elements constituting the organization whole perform each assigned task for the realization of the objectives and goals of any organizations. As such, there is so much to coordinate among these elements to execute success or growth. It is for this reason projects are broken down into more manageable elements, also known as project phases. This paper will therefore focus on the five phases that are involved in project management that is initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing. Throughout this paper comprehensive explanation will be given in each case.


An ongoing report done by 'The Cato Unbound Journal of Debate' finds that "CPS case managers consistently separate youngsters from their folks at a month to month rate multiple times more noteworthy than the quantity of the divisions at the Mexican fringe that occurred in May 2018." However with developing worries of the meaning of wellbeing, racial segregation, and exhausted specialists, it requires a more profound perception of kid defensive administrations as an essential supporter of the degree that child care is today. Doug Besharov, the chief of the U.S. National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect and furthermore the writer of 17 books on youngster abuse characterizes kid defensive administrations as "the essential beneficiaries of reports of intrafamilial kid misuse and disregard… [and they] work in the social work custom of helping individuals with their issues through an assortment of psychological well-being and steady administrations." ( 219 ) Overall the shared objective of kid defensive administrations, was to give a more secure choice to the kids and family in danger. Shockingly, this has brought about an expanding number of youngsters in the child care framework.


Andrea Ball and Eric Dexheimer two scientists from the 'Austin American Statesman' as of late finds that "Every month, Child Protective Services enlists 200 new case managers. Inside a half year, 33 of them will stop." And tragically, low compensations and abusive remaining tasks at hand bear a great part of the fault. Yet, this influences something other than the quantity of youngster defensive specialists that we presents, it hampers the idea of work done in existing conditions.The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) and its partner study, Caring for Children in Child Welfare (CCCW) mourns that "One conceivable clarification [ for open cases] , is that numerous families get few administrations past intermittent visits by normally over-troubled case managers" (199) When Child Protective administrations are over-worked, over focused, or even over troubled it tends to be barely noticeable those enduring before them however above all it can prompt case managers simply unsubstantaining the case and not going further into profundity or continuing with an examination. This is dangerous as reports of kid misuse and disregard have expanded during the previous quite a long while there has been a similarly emotional decrease in the quantity of substantiated youngster misuse and disregard reports. ( Cameron 327 ) and a little more than 33% of youngsters from those cases were set into child care or a gathering home. (Waldfogel 197) The low quality in administrations in view of overburden cases laborers prompts the reprisal of taking the simpler course, continuing the case, and advancing the measure of youngsters inside the child care framework.

The Safety Plan:

It's an ideal opportunity to re-consider the arrangements and setting of division done by CPS. At the point when Child Protective specialists bring youngsters into their authority, they have to get endorsed to have the children's ejection from their homes and to trade legal consideration to CPS. At that point the kid is put into substitute consideration, and is commanded a court request to locate the most ideal arrangement. However Diane Redleaf creator of 'They Took the Kids Last Night' and a family barrier lawyer dissects some key issues with the procedure, characterizing kid defensive administrations security designs as a procedure "that expect guardians to give their youngsters over to relatives under danger of constrained expulsion and position with outsiders" and however "these divisions are named as "deliberate" … guardians are persuaded that entrusting their kids to a relative is the main way they can see their children by any stretch of the imagination." The issue with this is the 'foretelling of child care.' since as a rule this "wellbeing plan" that should be transitory, transforms into a "treatment plan" and is long haul. The arrangements and usage of the CPS framework is the thing that principally prompts a further defeat to the youngster's future. Howard Davidson, the Director of Children's Law features that the framework realizes they don't have the right guide set up so "to address the too-regular experience of "child care limbo" and administrative disregard of youngsters in cultivate position, in 1980 Congress established the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act (AACWA). The AACWA tied significant government money related help for state expenses of child care to a lot of procedural changes taken by kid welfare organizations and the courts." It eventually fizzled, because of the thorough limitations it put on homes of encourage youngsters. While examining, this was the last full endeavor I found to support the framework and their guide, yet until further executions, we can obviously observe that the guide for kids inside the framework, isn't looking to splendid.

Racial Discrimination:

African Americans are lopsidedly spoken to inside the child care framework than that of some other race. In Samuel Myers' book titled 'Examination of Race as Policy Analysis', he accentuation the predisposition of those of shading in kid defensive administrations stages with association with the main measure of African Americans inside child care through two significant references as pursues. One of the basic issues featured by the head of Child Welfare League, Thomas Morton, was that "the overrepresentation of African American youngsters [within the child care system] is expected chiefly to announcing inclination and different types of racial predisposition inside the kid defensive administrations" (176). In would like to further comprehend the profundity of that portrayal, we should inspect the inconsistencies between the reports. If groups of shading are at higher risk of maltreatment or participate in maltreatment at increasingly raised sums, we would envision that the insights demonstrate the differences. In any case, Myers proceeded with proof from the National Incidence Studies, battling that "shockingly, blacks are not bound to be accounted for than are whites, in any event, when one records for contrasts in attributes of correspondents, sort of abuse and qualities of the youngster and family" (Ards, Chung, and Myers 177). In interpretation, this implies the foundation of kid abuse might be equivalent between those of shading and those not of shading, however the result for the sum in child care is lopsided and aggravating. "By and large, dark kids represent in excess of 40 percent of the child care populace… and they are dependent upon longer remains in child care, by and large, than that of white kids" (Berger, Font, and Slack ). This is indicates the accuse the youngster defensive administrations specialists and their detailing predisposition.


Regardless of the positive aims of youngster defensive administrations, its lead to an inadvertent measure of kids inside the child care as a lasting situation as opposed to a transitory arrangement. To forestall the overemphasize or come up short on of CPS operators, we could accomplish things, for example, raise property assessment or raise compensation however this arrangement doesn't avert further interruption of the child care framework and just tends to the framework and not the families in danger. So all things being equal, Madelyn Freundlich from The National Conference of State Legislature sets us an unmistakable arrangement which is "Family bolster administrations [that are relatively] intended to reinforce families who have not yet encountered an emergency or become associated with the kid welfare framework or even family safeguarding administrations [that are] intended to fortify families who are in emergency and in danger of having their kids enter child care." With these set up, the weight would be lifted off of CPS' shoulders and the propagation of kids inside the child care framework because of the framework will further be reduced.

Works Cited:

Cameron, James S. "Impressions of a Child Protective Services Practitioner: Have We Lost Sight of the Mission?" Family Law Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 2, 1986, pp. 323–329. JSTOR, JSTOR,

Besharov, Douglas J. "Battling Child Abuse: Guidelines for Cooperation between Law Enforcement and Child Protective Agencies." Family Law Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 3, 1990, pp. 209–245. JSTOR, JSTOR,

Redleaf, Diane. "At the point when the Child Protective Services System Gets Child Removal Wrong." Cato Unbound, 9 Nov. 2018, defensive administrations framework gets-youngster expulsion wrong.

Ball, Andrea. "Stress, Low Pay Contribute to Caseworker Turnover." Austin's Segregation and Gentrification | Austin American-Statesman, 2015,