Strategies in the Service Sector


Select one of the following service sector industries: The restaurant industry, the lodging/hotel industry, or the health/fitness industry. Research this industry. Investopedia, Wikipedia, and other 'pedias' are not considered to be rigorous, academic research references. Be sure to cite your research references in APA format. See the syllabus for the word count minimums.

Visit the web sites of 3 or more representative firms in the industry you have selected.

How would you categorize their similarities?
How would you categorize their differences?
Identify the generic strategies employed by each of the competitors you’ve looked at in this industry. Are they similar? Why or why not?
Are there any complementary strategies being employed by these firms? If so, what are they? If not, why not?

Sample Answer


Hydrogen power module fundamentals

What is a power device

In the present society, specialists are persistently scanning for new types of sustainable power source to limit ozone depleting substance emanations (GHGs). Among the a wide range of reasons for environmental change in Canada, transportation is one of the main sources, from singular velocity to the delivery of goods1. Be that as it may, specialists accept that the rise and growing ubiquity of electric vehicles in the ongoing years can incredibly decrease the discharge of these GHGs. Among the assortment of electric vehicles, hydrogen energy component vehicles are turning into a practical choice. Hydrogen power devices use hydrogen and oxygen as fuel to create power, warmth and water . Hydrogen power modules are interesting as it requires the least complex and most plenteous component on earth, hydrogen. 2

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Structure and Chemistry

As opposed to using the regular procedure of changing to acquire hydrogens from hydrocarbons, hydrogen is rather gotten from water through electrolysis. Electrolysis is a procedure that incites concoction change by the entry of an electrical flow through a solution.3

Fig 1: Schematic demonstrating the essential functions of a Hydrogen energy component and the science involved.Source: 4

All energy units are made of four significant parts: the anode, electrolyte, cathode and impetus. Hydrogen, the fuel, connects with the anode which comprises of an impetus, regularly platinum. The platinum oxidizes hydrogen and parts protons and electrons from the fuel. From that point, the electron moves to the cathode by means of an outer source which is regularly a wire, making an electrical flow happen. In the interim, the protons move to the cathode through the electrolyte, which for example can be potassium hydroxide. Furthermore, the electrolyte is explicitly utilized for the movement of positive hydrogen particles, also, the kind of substance used here will decide the sort of energy component delivered. At the cathode, the protons and electrons in the end rejoin and respond with an impetus, for example, nickel, and oxygen to deliver the side-effect, water. At last, hydrogen is expended as fuel, power is made, and water is delivered as the waste item. Notwithstanding, all together for this response to happen consistently, a constant stockpile of fuel and oxygen is required. 5

The Different Types of Hydrogen Fuel Cells

As recently referenced, in spite of the fact that power devices have a similar four significant parts, the kind of electrolyte utilized in the framework will decide the sort of energy unit created, henceforth a wide range of hydrogen power modules can be found. For example, proton-trade film power devices (PEMFCs) use bipolar plate, made of metals or graphite, which acts an anode in the framework, in any case, cost and upkeep can be an issue. Moreover, direct methanol power devices (DMFCs), like PEMFCs utilize a proton-leading film as an electrolyte, be that as it may, utilizes methanol as the fuel source, hence making both carbon dioxide and water the waste items. Then again, phosphoric corrosive power devices (PAFCs), use phosphoric corrosive, an acidic non-conductive fluid, as the electrolyte, be that as it may, this can bring about consumption. Antacid energy units (AFCs) despite what might be expected, utilizes a blend of potassium hydroxide and water as the electrolyte. AFCs have prominently been utilized by NASA in the Apollo space program. Moreover, liquid carbonate energy units (MCFCs), use liquid carbonate salts as an electrolyte to control certain mechanical and military material because of its great effectiveness. Ultimately, strong oxide energy components (SOFCs) use a strong artistic electrolyte called yttria-settled zirconia (YSZ) which are frequently planned as chambers because of its sythesis. Each power module has its focal points and research is as yet being led to deliver the most effective and ecologically cognizant hydrogen energy component.

Fig 2: Table indicating six distinct sorts of power modules and their relative working temperature just as their appropriate application. Source: focus/how-power modules work/6

Uses of hydrogen power modules


There is as of now a wide assortment of vehicles that use hydrogen energy components to control their electric engines. The most well-known one is a FCV (energy unit vehicle), and in the course of recent years, more vehicle makers have been putting resources into the generation of these vehicles. Toyota, a flow industry mammoth, uncovered that in 2014 it would have cost around 1 million USD to make a hydrogen energy unit fueled electric vehicle, yet because of quick improvement of this innovation, in 2015 can be made for as meager as $50,000 USD, empowering shoppers to truly think about changing to this innovation. At the point when the innovation was new, you couldn't really purchase a FCV; just rent one for a couple of years; because of the expense of the power device innovation inside the vehicle. Another pioneer in the fragment, Hyundai, presently rents its Tuscon FCV's for $499 USD every month in a 3-year rent term, which incorporates a fuel card that gives free fuel to cover 12,000 miles for every year. In any case, the principle issue with FCVs is the absence of framework, in this way an organization called "First Element" started introducing hydrogen siphons at prior gas stations, drastically reducing down expenses when contrasted with building a totally different station only for hydrogen.7

The other principle strategy for transport that as of now uses this innovation is electric transports, called energy component electric transports (FCEB). They are as of now working in numerous urban communities over the world and eventually give a clean and earth amicable technique for transport for the general population. A preferred position of FCEBs over battery controlled electric transports is the proficiency, as a significant issue with battery innovation is its absence of viability in outrageous cold temperatures. Though hydrogen is significantly more steady and isn't influenced by outrageous temperatures.

A third application for the energy components is in stockrooms and assembling plants that require the utilization of forklift trucks and load dealing with apparatus. Hydrogen energy units are controlling this hardware and giving a spotless option in contrast to fuel or diesel-controlled other options. Likewise, they have a bit of leeway over battery worked units since there is no protracted charging times which implies that less units should be purchased so as to stay aware of the workload.8

Transportation of hydrogen:

The underlying stockpiling and transportation strategies for liquidized hydrogen comprised of steel tanks that kept the hydrogen in a fluid structure at around 2000 PSI. This demonstrated to be a compelling route at capacity, and since Hydrogen in not destructive, there demonstrated to be no issues with debasement of the steel holders. Notwithstanding, new advances in the capacity of Hydrogen has lined within these steel tanks with a carbon fiber composite material that immensely improves the solidarity to around multiple times that of steel alone and can even withstand a 100 MPH crash without tearing open. These advances in the treatment of liquidized Hydrogen enables a more secure vehicle of it to market and makes it an a lot more secure and engaging wellspring of energy.9

One of the present techniques for transport of hydrogen to showcase is the sharing of a solitary pipeline, with both petroleum gas and hydrogen gas in a single pipeline, where the two gases are then isolated preceding use. This is a productive technique for transportation given that the present foundation for gaseous petrol as of now exists. Also, the nearness of flammable gas takes into account a quicker identification of a hole in a pipeline due to the odorants that are added to the petroleum gas. Additionally, an advantage is the support of potential vitality when contrasted with a vitality source, for example, electric; as there is a sure measure of lost vitality because of opposition in control links over long separations. In any case, with hydrogen there is no misfortune in potential vitality, and this makes it a practical technique for transportation.10

Hydrogen for shopper transportation is sold in different structures relying upon the necessary vitality requests and scope of a solitary tank; there is 2 normal and 1 less basic types of hydrogen that are utilized for transportation. The first is packed hydrogen gas which is apportioned at either 5000 PSI or 10000 PSI. This is a typical structure for autos and transports. The other basic structure is cryogenic, super-cooled fluid hydrogen.

The third type of hydrogen is a liquidized slurry that is a hydrogen rich compound. Frequently it is lithium hydride or magnesium hydride that is utilized and is a promising structure given that it tends to be put away at typical living temperatures and treated along these lines as some other fluid given its higher steadiness. An utilization of this would see the slurry conveyed to the service station where it would be isolated into unadulterated hydrogen, and the result (Mg(OH)­2 (milk of magnesia) would then be able to be come back to magnesium hydride for re-use. The upside of a slurry over cryogenic hydrogen is that it has double the vitality thickness and is a lot less expensive to deliver and ship. 11

Stationary Fuel cells:

Stationary hydrogen energy components are static units that give power and warmth to an encompassing home or building. There are a few sorts, of which incorporate essential power units, uninterruptible power frameworks (UPS) and joined warmth and forces frameworks (CHP).

The CHP frameworks give up to 10 KWe and have a general proficiency of up to 95%. These frameworks are extremely useful for use in the private division just as condo structures, nursing homes and clinics, and there have been more noteworthy than 10000 units propelled in Japanese homes. The main constraining component for the application in the private setting is the cost; which in Japan and south Korea is counterbalanced by government endowments. The energy unit innovation in these units depends on either PEM (proton trade layer) or SOFC (strong oxide power device) technology.12

An ongoing report (Herrmann et al. 2018), investi