Idiosyncratic and systemic risk.


Explain how exchange rates and interest rates are linked (including the mechanisms for that linkage.)
Why and when was the velocity of money stable and why and when was it unstable?
Fully develop the AD/AS model with inflation and output as its axis labels in both the short run and long run. Be sure to include all of the elements that go into its development.
Describe the Great Moderation, when and how it came about and why it ended as badly as it did.
Summarize all of the channels by which the monetary policy transmission mechanism can work.

example of a really good answer:
Distinguish between idiosyncratic and systemic risk.

Idiosyncratic risk is the risk that results from owning a specific security in the form of a stock, bond, CD, etc. It is the risk you think of when you think about losing money investing in a specific thing. For example, if you bought a share of AMZN, and then earnings came out and they were disappointing and the stock price falls resulting in you losing money, you just suffered the consequences of idiosyncratic risk. You can diversify against idiosyncratic risk by purchasing many different securities so that when one does poorly, it doesn’t affect you as much because the others are likely to not be suffering the same problems.
Systemic risk, on the other hand, is risk that affects many securities at once. These are often geopolitical events that result in the market as a whole being affected. For example, a highly infectious virus might originate somewhere in the world and start to spread aggressively causing economic slowdowns/lockdowns that in turn affect the performance of many securities at once. These sorts of things are generally out of the hands of individual investors, and cannot be so easily diversified against.
You might look at it this way. You’re on a ship in the middle of the ocean. There are things you can do to make sure you don’t fall off of the ship. You can avoid the top deck, wear a restraint of some sort, make sure people are keeping track of you, etc.. Here, you are doing what you can as an individual to manage the idiosyncratic risk of falling of the ship. However, if the ship is sinking, that might be out of your hands. Now you have the systemic risk (the sinking ship) that you cant do much about. This will affect all of the passengers (securities) at once, and diversification (risk management) will not have helped that much.



Sample Solution

Idiosyncratic and systematic risk

Interest rates, inflation, and exchange rates are highly correlated. By manipulating interest rates, central banks exert influence over both inflation over both inflation and exchange rates, and exchanging interest rates impact inflation and currency values. Exchange rates play a vital role in a country`s level of trade, which is critical to most every free market economy in the world. For this reason, exchange rates are among the most watched, analyzed and governmentally manipulated economic measures. A higher exchange rate can be expected to worsen a country`s balance of trade, while a lower exchange rate can be expected to improve it. On the other hand, higher interest rates offer lenders in an economy a higher return relative to other countries. Therefore, higher interest rates attract foreign capital and cause the exchange rate to rise. The impact of higher interest rates is mitigated, however, if inflation in the country is much higher than in others.


As indicated by Investopedia, joblessness is a wonder that happens when an individual who is effectively looking for business can’t look for some kind of employment. In other mean, they need to work yet nobody acknowledged them as a specialist. There are two classes of joblessness which is willful and automatic joblessness. Intentional joblessness can be allude to as an individual that has exited their profession readily. It very well may be because of search of other better employment. Then again, automatic joblessness allude to an individual that has been terminated or laid off and now should search for another activity. It isn’t care for they need to be jobless, yet they are being terminated reluctantly and due to that it named automatic joblessness. There are five sort of joblessness in Malaysia. To begin with, patterned joblessness. It happen because of the business cycle itself. Business cycle characterized by Investopedia as the vacillation in a monetary action that an economy encounters over some undefined time frame. It occur during downturn periods and declining during financial development. Second, basic joblessness. It occur through mechanical refreshed. Individuals are jobless on the grounds that they unfit to work utilizing those development innovation. Or then again it can likewise because of the innovation itself supplant specialist in carrying out their responsibility. Third, frictional joblessness. It otherwise called inquiry joblessness, happens when laborers lose their present place of employment and are finding another. It is momentary joblessness on the grounds that once they secure new position, they will never again be jobless. Fourth, regular joblessness. It exists because of specific enterprises just deliver or circulate their items at specific occasions of the year. As model, cultivating ventures will just gather their item during natural product season.

Malaysia joblessness pattern is expanding from year to year. It is increment by 0.4% contrast with October a year ago. It might be because of awful economy that we confronting now. All the more critically, the individuals who are jobless likewise incorporated an alumni which speak to 6/10 or 60% from absolute jobless individual. They are jobless much following half year they moved on from tertiary training. It is a significant issue on the grounds that despite the fact that they are work searcher with scholarly capability, no organization need to utilize them. Likewise, the most noteworthy alumni who is jobless originated from Public University which speak to 51%. The second most noteworthy jobless is move on from Private University which speak to 34%. In the interim the rest is move on from polytechnic and junior college which speak to 13% and 2% individually. Presently we can unmistakably observe that Public University graduate is the most noteworthy one who jobless. Here are some measurement finally page of the presentation.

This issue is certifiably not a decent condition that we ought to overlook since it will prompt negative impact to the picture of tertiary training particularly Public University and furthermore the nation. Among the ramifications of jobless alumni are,

To begin with, failure to meet money related obligations and essential necessities of life. As Asaju K., Arome S. and Anyio S.F. (2014) said the jobless people are typically incapable to gain cash to meet budgetary duties and the fundamental necessities of life. It is on the grounds that they have no activity so they incapable to win month to month salary that they have to meet money related obligations and the essential necessities of life. As model, when graduate is jobless they will be not able reimburse their instruction advance, for example, PTPTN. Nor Syazwani Ab. Rahim (2013) additionally express the expanding number of joblessness in a nation may build the expense of standard living. Second, can prompt wrongdoing movement. Tang, C. F. (2009) express that joblessness is decidedly identified with wrongdoing. Asaju, K. et al. (2014) likewise included that joblessness realizes across the board guiltiness, cultural ills and social indecencies, for example, hooliganism, equipped burglary and prostitution. Nor Syazwani Ab. Rahim, (2013) said that joblessness have given a significant job in clarifying the difference in wrongdoing rate. It is all since when individuals is jobless, they will have no pay from genuine exercises subsequently it can prompt inclusion in crimes because of their requirement for cash to take care of their expense of living particularly during this terrible economy. Third, high pace of destitution. A nation with high joblessness convey implies they are not utilizing the entirety of the accessible assets, particularly work and due to that joblessness occur. A nation can have higher yield if all accessible asset, for example, work, crude material were used effectively. It can prompts loss of potential yield in an economy when accessible asset not used proficiently. Also, during time of joblessness, there are probability the alumni can lose their aptitudes because of absence of training. In addition, it likewise can prompt high pace of destitution and moderate financial advancement. It is on the grounds that numerous individuals are jobless. Ariff, K. A. M. (1973) express that the joblessness is probably going to be not kidding danger to work power later on. It can likewise be allude to monetary of our nation.

Figure 1: Unemployment rate ( Source: Trading Economics)

Figure 2: Unemployment graduate rate (Source: EduAdvisor)

Figure 3: Unemployment graduate rate by tertiary instruction (Source: EduAdvisor)


There are many explanation that lead to Public University graduate being jobless despite the fact that they have scholarly capability. Among the explanation they being jobless are,

To start with, more to hypothetical than down to earth.

Hypothetical here allude to hypothesis or certainty while down to earth here allude to movement rehearsed. As we as of now advise, Malaysian instruction depends on assessment situated and due to that Public University center around arrangement of hypothesis which allude to learning process in class so as to get ready understudy for assessment. They not concentrate more on commonsense which allude to rehearse what they have realized either in or outside of the class which will result to deficient practice or delicate ability. Furthermore, it can prompt alumni being jobless. In contrast to other tertiary instruction, they center around both hypothesis and reasonable. What’s more, they additionally have instructional exercise session after class. As model, private college’s business visionary understudy need to make and sell their item. At any rate thusly, they can pick up understanding on the best way to create their own item, improve existing item and find effective approach to sell their item. In rundown, they can understanding and execute what they have been realizing in their group so as to set themselves up for work world later on. It is on the grounds that business these days take a gander at scholarly execution as well as expertise the alumni have. As Holmes, An., and Miller, S. (2000) stated, businesses are currently searching for graduate with scholarly abilities, yet in addition built up the key aptitudes that will empower a fruitful and quick change from instruction into work. It is all because of lion’s share graduate these days have superb scholastic outcome or execution yet absence of delicate expertise. Shockingly, state funded college more spotlight on hypothesis than handy. Along these lines, state funded college need to adjust up hypothesis and reasonable in a similar time while understudy still in grounds before they graduate so they at any rate have understanding on what they should do when they work later on.