Principles of Microeconomics

Describe the relationship between total utility and marginal utility.
Explain if marginal utility can be negative.
Examine the diamond-water paradox. Why are diamonds more expensive than water?
Evaluate the law of diminishing marginal utility.
Identify some items, explaining your reasoning, that do not follow the law of diminishing marginal utility.
Evaluate how the law of diminishing marginal utility can explain the diamond-water paradox.

Sample Answer

whereas total utility is defined as the total satisfaction obtained from consuming a particular total quantity of a good or service, marginal utility on the other hand is defined as the satisfaction obtained from consuming an additional quantity of a particular service or good. Negative marginal utility can occur when the consumption of an additional item decreases the total utility. Conversely, the law of diminishing marginal utility states that all else equals as consumption increases the marginal utility derived from each additional unit declines.


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In this article I will talk about the present suggestions for enormous entrail screening, to analyze gut disease, including those ordered as high hazard. I will likewise be examining the job of imaging in the underlying analysis and the resulting development.

The NHS have discovered that inside malignancy is one of the most widely recognized diseases in the UK, with around 40,000 new cases being analyzed each and every year. This implies roughly 1 in each 20 individuals will create inside malignancy sooner or later inside their lifetime. Be that as it may, the prior it is recognized, the higher the pace of fruitful treatment and endurance. This is the reason inside screening is so significant. It has been discovered that around 90% of the individuals who experience the ill effects of gut disease are beyond 60 years old, so in this manner it is critical to guarantee inside screening is for the most part gone for those of this age go, as they are at a higher hazard.

There are two sorts of gut screening strategies presently utilized inside the UK. These are the fecal mysterious blood test and inside extension screening. The FOB test is accessible to everybody between the ages of 60 and 74. This test is conveyed at regular intervals by post and it works by checking if there is any sign of blood in the patient's feces test. This is valuable as blood in fecal issue can an early side effect of gut disease.

The second strategy for inside screening is called gut extension screening. This is a test that solitary should be done once, and is step by step being actualized into utilization over the UK. It is regularly utilized after an anomalous outcome has been found during a FOB test. As indicated by the NHS, "As of March 2015, around 66% of screening focuses were starting to offer the test to 55-year-olds." This incorporates the two guys and females. Entrail extension screening fundamentally includes the patient experiencing colonoscopy technique to glimpse inside the lower gut of the patient for polyps, which are little injuries. The specialist or medical caretaker at that point evacuates these polyps during a biopsy as they can end up destructive, and bring about malignant growth of the inside.

It is imperative to survey and examine whether screening of the entrail is really suitable and a need for the NHS to give, especially on the grounds that financial limit and staff assets are so restricted. As per NICE, 2014, the inside screening project gave by the NHS, as portrayed above, meets the UK National Screening Committee's criteria for a compelling and deliberate screening system. This is a consequence of proof given from 3 RCTs which indicated that these screening techniques really decreased the death pace of gut malignant growth by a gauge of 16%. (Mandel et al, 1993; Hardcastle et al, 1996; Kronborg et al, 1996; Hewitson et al, 2007).

The detriments and "potential damages" of the entrail disease screening system as per the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Program, 2006 include: uneasiness, colonoscopy entanglements for example dying, entrail puncturing and even demise, individuals may likewise have an excess of trust in an ordinary screening result and don't comprehend the impediments of screening and that they may in any case be in danger and accordingly disregard potential indications. The NHS does attempt to dodge this however by giving however much data to the patient as could be expected. Likewise, as expressed before it has been demonstrated that screening techniques can decrease the death rate by roughly 16%, so any drawbacks to this screening are exceeded to certain degree, as long as every one of the measures are taken to avoid any colonoscopy confusions and nerves that are normal with this analytic examination.

The confusions of colonoscopy which are referenced above were found during an investigation by Rabeneck et al, 2008, of 100,000 individuals between the ages of 50 and 75 years of age. This is proper as this is the typical age range engaged with inside screening. On the off chance that there are significant contraindications to a colonoscopy, CT colonography might be utilized. Nerves identified with screening and false expectation/numbness because of a typical outcome have not been officially researched starting at the present moment, however it is viewed as a hazard by numerous specialists as referenced by Rhodes, J.M. (2000) in a "Joint Position Statement" by the British Society of Gastroenterology, the Royal College of Physicians, and the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

Imaging is utilized not simply to screen for entrail malignant growth, for example colonoscopy. It is likewise utilized during the treatment and development in the event that it is discovered that metastatic developments are available inside the patient. During the arranging of entrail malignant growth treatment differentiate improved CT of the chest, mid-region and pelvis is frequently utilized except if there are significant contraindications, in which case MRI is routinely utilized. These are utilized to check the spread of metastatic sickness all through the body and analyze what stage the malignant growth is at.

After treatment of the malignant growth patients as a rule experience normal reconnaissance to screen any repeat of the disease. As indicated by NICE rules (2011), this is for the most part in any event two CTs inside the following three of the chest, belly and pelvis, alongside different tests, for example, ordinary serum carcinoembryonic antigen tests.