Substance abuse as a community health problem.

1. Discuss the historical trends and current conceptions of the cause and treatment of substance abuse.
2. Describe the ethical and legal implications of substance abuse.
3. Identify factors that influence violence.
4. Identify at-risk populations for violence and the role of public health in dealing with the epidemic of violence.

Sample Answer

Substance abuse implies the use of hazardous or harmful substances like alcohol, cocaine and bang in uncontrolled levels. Can alternatively be defined as the use of drugs in amounts that are injurious to the body of an individual and others. Drug and substance abuse raise several ethical and legal issues which include

Latin American nations have consistently been presented to western impact. With its neo-leftist position the west urges Latin America to open up its exchange and help out the west. During the 1960s numerous nations needed to keep Western impact outside in light of the fact that they were persuaded this would contrarily impact their advancement. An outcome of this demeanor was the advancement of a hypothesis that scrutinized the western leftist position; the reliance hypothesis. Reliance hypothesis reprimands western advancement. This basic position can be clarified by the way that Latin America is verifiably presented to the political, financial, social and scholarly impact of the US and its intermittent endeavor to decrease US mastery (Tickner 2008:736). The area, being a piece of the non-center, needs their comprehension of worldwide substances to be investigated. (Tickner 2003b). In any case, the hypothesis has been affected by the west and in this way has lost quality. Additionally, its observational legitimacy has been addressed. For the previously mentioned reasons the hypothesis is not really utilized any longer. It ought not be overlooked, in any case, that the hypothesis has a few characteristics which do add to the field of universal relations. First this paper will talk about the post-pilgrim contention that reliance hypothesis isn't sufficiently basic and gives a clarification why the hypothesis is Eurocentric. Thereafter it will examine its exact legitimacy lastly it tends to the hypothesis its commitment to the field of worldwide relations. Reliance hypothesis started during the 1960s in Latin America. Straight to the point, the main scholar, contends that because of the industrialist framework, creating nations are immature and improvement is incomprehensible as long as they stay in the entrepreneur framework (Frank 1969). Restricted to Frank, Cardoso and Faletto contend that advancement is conceivable regardless of basic assurance and that the neighborhood state has a significant job, they call it related ward improvement ((1979:xi). However, both Frank and Cardoso and Falleto in the end contend that reliance ways should be broken by developing ways toward communism. The reliance scholars are accordingly incredulous of Western progressivism. As referenced above, reliance hypothesis endeavors to condemn western-advancement. Post-imperialism, in any case, contends that reliance hypothesis isn't counter-innovator and not basic enough. Post-pioneer scholars, as opposed to numerous regular scholars, express that thoughtfulness regarding frontier starting points is expected to show signs of improvement comprehension of the extension of the world request (Seth 2011). Reliance hypothesis pays thoughtfulness regarding its pilgrim inceptions. For instance, Frank contends that reliance happened generally through subjection and imperialism and proceeds with today through western strength of the global exchanging framework, the acts of worldwide organizations and the LDC's dependence on Western guide (Frank 1969). In any case, post-expansionism criticizes the way how reliance scholars address the pilgrim inceptions. The primary study comes from the way that the homogenizing and consolidating world chronicled plan of reliance disregards, tames, or rises above distinction. It doesn't consider the distinctions in narratives, societies and people groups (Said, 1985: 22).The second scrutinize originates from the way that to get an adequate comprehension of the rise of the cutting edge global framework, it ought not be inspected how a worldwide society that created in the West transmitted outwards, but instead the manners by which universal society was molded by connections among Europe and those it colonized. (Seth 2011:174). Pos-colonalists, nonetheless, contend that reliance hypothesis is Eurocentric. Reliance scholars don't know about the manner by which culture outlines their own investigation. While attempting to take a gander at colonialism from the viewpoint of the fringe, dependistas neglect to do this (Kapoor 2002:654). For dependistas the 'middle' keeps on being focal and prevailing so the West winds up being combined as sovereign subject. Reliance's ethnocentrism shows up in its verifiable investigation also. Dependistas utilize the manner in which how private enterprise created in Europe as an all inclusive model that represents history and consider creating to be as instances of fizzled or ward free enterprise. (Kapoor 2002:654) Post expansionism consequently would contend that while testing the present entrepreneur framework, reliance hypothesis isn't basic enough since it doesn't satisfactorily address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Tickner (2008) may give a clarification of why reliance hypothesis isn't sufficiently basic and why it is portrayed regarding adherence to the industrialist framework overwhelmed by the west. IR thinking in Latin America is affected by - in addition to other things US scholarly information. As Tickner contends, reliance hypothesis is anything but a certified non-center hypothesis however it is affected by US investigators. As indicated by Cardoso (1977) this prompted serious twists in its unique substance since it nearby inside issues of most prominent worry to social researchers in Latin America became imperceptible and outer factors, for example, US mediation and global enterprises were organized. Besides, IR thinking in that area has been affected by ordinary hypotheses. For instance, through the impact of authenticity in Latin America, much consideration was paid to the job of the tip top and besides, scholars were worried about the idea of intensity however supplanted it with an increasingly reasonable idea self-sufficiency (Tickner 2008:742).Thus the impact of US IR information and customary speculations may have added to the way that reliance hypothesis isn't sufficiently basic and has lost its impact. Despite the fact that post-imperialism tends to reliance's concern – that is doesn't adequately addresses culture due to its sole spotlight on private enterprise – it ought to be noticed that culture isn't considered as well in general scope of different variables which could help clarify underdevelopment are forgotten about the hypothesis too. This inadequacy explains why reliance hypothesis is experimental invalid.For model, reliance doesn't address nearby, physical, social or political powers that may have had a job in the powerlessness to produce mechanical advancement and doesn't recognize that government is just mostly answerable for underdevelopment (Smith 1981). As Smith contends; "reliance hypothesis misrepresents the logical intensity of financial colonialism as an idea to comprehend verifiable change in the south" (1981:757). Smith properly calls attention to that in certain examples dependistas do perceive the impact of nearby conditions however this is just so to reaffirm at last the abrogating intensity of monetary colonialism. In addition, the hypothesis doesn't give any consideration to the beneficial outcomes that the contact with the global framework can accommodate creating nations. In this manner, dependistas exclusively take a gander at monetary force and express that as long as nations remain some portion of the worldwide entrepreneur framework advancement is inconceivable. The best way to escape is to disengage from this framework or if the colonizer gives up political force. (Kapoor 656) However, South-Korea's improvement shows the deficiency of this contention. South-Korea experienced quick development during the 1970s notwithstanding its reliance on the US. The instance of South-Korea shows that advancement is conceivable regardless of reliance and that reliance can have constructive outcomes. Another case which shows reliance's deficiency is Ghana. During the 1980s Ghana received reliance arrangements that were predictable with the disavowal of the significance of the western financial standards and attempted to keep western impact outside. Nonetheless, rather than bringing success and more prominent freedom for the Ghanasian economy, these arrangements caused neediness and more prominent reliance on universal guide or philanthropy (Ahiakpor 1985:13). The reliance approaches didn't bolster Ghana's advancement since it just centered around private enterprise without considering different elements. The hypothesis along these lines has huge inadequacies which clarifies its loss of impact. Be that as it may, it ought to be noticed that the hypothesis has a few characteristics too. In spite of its homogenizing and Eurocentric history, the hypothesis knows that history is a significant factor. The upside of reliance's basic chronicled viewpoint is that expansive examples and patterns can be perceived. Additionally, it enables one to gain from past slip-ups to change the future (Kapoor 2002:660). In addition, as Wallerstein contends "One of the essential bits of knowledge and commitments of reliance is the conceptualization of the unicity of the world framework" (1974:3). It unmistakably depicts how the world is consolidated in the entrepreneur framework and it shows the significance of financial contemplations on political issues. Moreover, it tends to the significance of nearby elites and outside organizations to the inner undertakings of feeble states whereby it gives a systematic structure. (Smith 1981:756). For instance, Cardoso and Faletto contend that if there is no solid nearby express, the decision first class may align themselves with outside organizations seeking after their very own advantages and along these lines maintaining reliance and underdevelopment. This examination is relevant to Congo and shows for instance that Congo's improvement is controlled on the grounds that a solid nearby state is missing and the neighborhood tip top partners with outside organizations seeking after their very own advantages (Reno 2006). To put it plainly, reliance hypothesis has lost impact on the grounds that – from a post-frontier viewpoint – it isn't counter-innovator and not basic enough. It doesn't enough address history and culture and is Eurocentric. In addition, it is experimentally invalid since it exclusively centers around free enterprise without considering different components. As opposed to what dependistas contend, subordinate advancement is conceivable inside the entrepreneur framework and the proposed confinement from t