“The Coming of Buddhism to China” (Mouzi)

Judging from Mouzi's text, what aspects of Buddhism were most criticized in China (i.e. what criticisms is he responding to)? Given what we know about Chinese culture at the time, why would these particular aspects of Buddhism have been so troublesome to its Chinese critics?

Sample Answer

oday, it can be argued that Buddhism is the fourth largest religion with an estimated following of about 250 million believers. This religion encompasses wide range of beliefs, traditions and spiritual practices largely based on the original teachings attributed to the buddha and resulting practices. In 845, Taoist Emperor Wuzong of the Tang Dynasty initiate

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It is a system to give private correspondences over an open system where the sender and the beneficiary hubs speak with one another namelessly by methods for some middle of the road hubs called onion switches. It depends on open key cryptography. The source hub sets up the center of an onion with a particular course message. During a course demand stage, each sending hub adds a scrambled layer to the course demand message. The source and goal hubs don't really have the foggiest idea about the ID of a sending hub. The goal hub gets the onion and conveys it along the course back to the source. The transitional hub can confirm its job by unscrambling and erasing the external layer of the onion. In the end a mysterious course can be set up.


Gathering mark plan can give verifications without upsetting the secrecy. Each part in a gathering may have a couple of gathering open and private keys gave by the gathering trust authority (i.e., bunch administrator). The part can produce its own mark by its own private key, and such mark can be checked by different individuals in the gathering without uncovering the endorser's personality. Just the gathering trust authority can follow the endorser's character and renounce the gathering keys.


In view of the AODV convention the source hub communicates a RREQ parcel to each hub in the system. On the off chance that the goal hub gets the RREQ to itself, it will answer a RREP parcel back along the approaching way of the RREQ. So as to secure the namelessness while trading the course data Onion directing technique and gathering mark is utilized. Onion steering is the system where the sender and the recipient hubs speak with one another secretly by methods for some middle hubs called as onion switches it depends on open key cryptography. For Example the beneath figure 4.1 contains 6 hubs, let onion switches 4, 3, and 5 be haphazardly chosen by the onion intermediary to send the information.

Figure 4.1 Onion Routing Mechanism

In the figure 4.1 every single hub is given a gathering open and private key dependent on the gathering mark strategy .The private key is novel for every single hub though the open key is the equivalent for every one of the hubs in the gathering. The intermediary scrambles the information with 5's open key followed by 3 and afterward 4.Thus an onion made in figure 4.2 is spoken to as