Visual aids

What is the purpose of using visual aids? Identify five types of visual aids and give examples of how they can be used.

Sample Answer

Visual aids are crucial and frequently used to reinforce your message, clarify points, and create excitement. This will help one to reach his objectives by providing emphasis to what is being said. Clear pictures multiply the audience’s level of understanding of the material presented.
PowerPoint (or equivalent)
Microsoft PowerPoint is probably now the most commonly used form of visual aid.
Overhead projector slides/transparencies
Overhead projector slides/transparencies are displayed on the overhead projector (OHP) – mostly found in lecture and seminar rooms. The OHP projects and enlarges slides onto a screen or wall without requiring the lights to be dimmed.
White or black board
White or black boards can be very useful to help explain the sequence of ideas or routines, particularly in the sciences. Used mostly to clarify title or to record key points as one introduces the presentation.
Flip chart
A flip chart is a large pad of paper on a stand. It is a very useful and flexible way of recording information during presentation. Often used to prepare sheets for key points.


Spot, date of accommodation: Regensburg, 2/1/19


China accepts that the United States is an inescapable danger to its sway, regional trustworthiness and looks to contain its ascent. As indicated by hostile authenticity, states with an inexhaustible measure of intensity have the most obvious opportunity with regards to endurance. Henceforth, China needs to augment its capacity and conceivably seek after authority to ensure its endurance and to deny the United States the chances to turn away its ascent by closure its strength. As needs be, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) shields China's endurance and its ascent by expanding its capacity. Right off the bat, the BRI limits potential dangers like product deficiencies and political unsteadiness through elective exchange courses and financial advancement. In addition, the BRI speaks to a gigantic monetary potential for China, expanding a lot of worldwide riches. Furthermore, with the BRI Beijing picks up influence over partaking nations and can impact their conduct while decreasing their receptivity to U.S. impact. Thirdly, the BRI speaks to a pathway to set up a worldwide request free of U.S. predominance, since it empowers China to assemble monetary and institutional statecraft abilities. Taken together, this involves a disintegration of U.S. control, moving the conveyance of intensity in support of China and at last causing U.S. authority to end. The BRI guarantees that the Washington has no longer the ability to contain China. Notwithstanding, it is dubious whether China plans to be the following worldwide hegemon as Beijing apparently tries to recreate a "Show of Great Powers". Additionally, China not really needs to totally change the global request, it rather looks to "improve" it where its inclinations are not met. The accomplishment of the BRI wards on its discernment by different states as a veritable monetary open door as they are careful about different states genuine expectations as per hostile authenticity.

1 Problem Statement

Introduced in 2013 by China's leader Xi Jinping (Yang, Lewis, Roddy and Moise, 2018) the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a framework idea, comprising of overland courses going through Central Asia and the Middle East to Europe and ocean paths of interchanges (SLOCs) associating China to Europe and Africa (map p.3). Other than the development of physical framework, which is to a great extent financed by China, the BRI means to upgrade participation in exchange and the budgetary division just as individuals to-individuals trades (Alon, Zhang and Lattemann, 2018, p.2). When acknowledged, it could associate 70% of the worldwide populace, arrive at 75% of the known vitality assets and incorporate 55% of the world's Gross National Product (Yang et al., 2018, p.56). China utilizes a comprehensive language to advance the BRI and stresses the advantages for partaking nations (Alon et al., 2018, p.7). Regardless of China's of "win-win" tact (Lubina, 2017, p. 21), this paper contends that the BRI is a device to expand China's capacity to shield its endurance and consistent ascent, which Beijing accepts are compromised by the United States (Scobell and Nathan, 2012). Washington is asserted to look for the adjustment of the Chinese political framework and regulation of China's monetary and military limits (Sauders, 2014, p. 148), represented by the U.S. "turn to Asia" (Sutter, 2014, pp.99-100; Ross, 2012). It was seen as subverting Beijing's endeavors to fortify its local position (Sun, 2013) and it restored fears of circle in China (Lubina, 2017, p.86; Scobell and Nathan, 2012). The soundest technique to ensure endurance as indicated by hostile authenticity is to have a mind-boggling measure of intensity (Mearsheimer, 2006, p. 72). Thus, to guarantee its prosperity, China needs to gather however much power as could reasonably be expected. Significantly, finishing U.S. authority, with the goal that Washington is never again ready to undermine China's position and contain its ascent. This paper investigations how the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) ensures China's endurance.

This paper is organized as pursues: initially, the sources are surveyed, before laying out the hypothesis of hostile authenticity and applying it to the BRI, breaking down how the BRI verifies the endurance of the Chinese state. Additionally, the suggestions on the universal framework are talked about. After a concise outline, the investigation is evaluated.

2 Assessment of Sources

A bottomless measure of writing exists on China and the BRI. Following writing was especially valuable: Phillip Saunders' and Robert Sutter's sections in the book "Global Relations of Asia" on China and the United States separately gave superb foundation data. In any case, being distributed in 2014, it isn't modern concerning ongoing occasions. Michał Lubina's well-looked into book "Russia and china – a political marriage of comfort – steady and fruitful" intercedes important information on China. The presently distributed book "China's Belt and Road Initiative" filled in as the fundamental source with respect to the activity, specifically, the parts by Francis Schortgen and Thomas Lairson. It is tricky to keep awake to-date concerning improvements around the BRI, as it is a wide idea instead of a solid arrangement and changes happen (Eder, 2018). The essential wellsprings of the two last-named works are a wellspring for more profound bits of knowledge and the paper is to a great extent dependent on them. Capable information was given by John Ikenberry's and Darren Lim's evaluation of "China's rising institutional statecraft". With respect to hypothetical part, Tim Dunne's and Brian Schmidt's section on authenticity filled in as an essential source, trailed by John Mearsheimer's interpretation of auxiliary authenticity in "Universal Relations Theories: Discipline and Diversity", particularly his insight on hostile authenticity.

Figure 1‑1 Map of BRI

(Source: Merics as observed in Eder, 2018)3 Analysis

Subsequent to exhibiting hostile authenticity, the hypothesis is counseled to disclose what China tries to accomplish with the BRI and its suggestion on the universal framework.

3.1 Theory

In authenticity the sovereign state is the unitary on-screen character in a framework where disorder wins, which means there is no incorporated power, which administers all states. Thusly, states depend on themselves to guarantee their flourishing, regional uprightness and power, which authenticity names the endurance of the state, being the essential enthusiasm everything being equal (Dunne and Schmidt, 2017, pp.105-106).

In addition, states can never be sure about other states' actual goals (Mearsheimer, 2006, p.73). In this manner, the international strategy of a state, situated on its national intrigue, must expect to amplifying its capacity, as sketched out by hostile authenticity, since having a mind-boggling measure of intensity speaks to just the soundest methodology to ensure endurance (Mearsheimer, 2006, p.72; Zürn, 1998, pp.536-537). Accordingly, states continually look for chances to amass more power, and if the conditions are promising, seek after authority. More power for one state implies less for another, which alters the circulation of intensity in the framework. In any case, this can't go on without serious consequences by different states, prompting a persistent challenge for control (Mearsheimer, 2006, pp.74-75; Dunne and Schmidt, 2017, pp.108-111).

In spite of the fact that power is the key pointer in authenticity, its idea is under-speculated and incongruently used and generally dependent on military resources states have (Dunne and Schmidt, 2017, p.110). In any case, war remains not a select strategy by which states can extend their capacity, they can accomplish this for example by collecting a more noteworthy portion of worldwide riches (Mearsheimer, 2006, pp.72-73). Power is applied in connection to different states and relative idea, which means one's own capacity is contrasted with others' capacity. Also, a refined idea of intensity would incorporate the ability of states to command or impact others in non-conflictual conditions (Dunne and Schmidt, 2017, p.110). Power is characterized here as the abilities or assets, states have comparative with others, with which they can impact and apply differing sorts of weight against one another; enlivened by William Wohlfort's material definition (1993, p.4).

3.2 The Belt and Road Initiative

To ensure China's endurance, as per hostile authenticity, the BRI must plan to amplify China's capacity and serve the national interests, so China can deny Washington to diminish China's power and block its nonstop ascent. This implies finishing U.S. matchless quality, while China looks for authority for its own. Relating to hostile authenticity, authority isn't tightened for victory, or mastery in itself, having a staggering measure of intensity speaks to the soundest methodology to ensure endurance (Mearsheimer, 2006, p.72). Thusly, it is dissected how the BRI serves China's national advantages and ensures its endurance.

Nearby sway and regional trustworthiness, China characterizes its national enthusiasm as propelling its financial improvement to guarantee political dependability and persevering authority of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and confining self-sufficient activities inside its western districts (Lubina, 2017, pp.86-87; Sauders, 2017, p.148). Assets, crude materials, and access to business sectors are an essential for monetary achievement. The BRI verifies products i.a. in Central Asia and transports them and different merchandise through other option, less defenseless overland courses to China. This declines the dependence on SLOCs navigating through i.a. the Malacca Strait, which China can't safeguard if there should be an occurrence of threats and awards the nation free access to business sectors (Rolland, 2017, pp.111-113). Importantly, the BRI keeps up financial achievement and power by calculated self-sufficiency.

The BRI involves a huge monetary potential for Chinese items (Schortgen, 2018, p.26), because of the general development of the working class and its utilization in Asia-Pacific, the Middle-East and Africa (Kharas, 2017, pp.13-16) which the BRI will